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Statistics - Collection
of procedures and
principles for
gathering data and
analyzing information
to help people make
decisions when faced
with uncertainty.
by David Warwick
# Statistics - Collection
of procedures and
principles for
gathering data and
analyzing information
to help people make
decisions when faced
with uncertainty.

## Procedures

### population

### random sample

### sample survey

### observational study

### variable

### randomized experiment

## Data

### dotplot

### five-number summary

### median

### lower quartile

### upper quartile

### interpreting data

## Problems

### nonresponse bias

### self-selected sample
(volunteer sample)

### confounding variable

## Mistakes

### Unrepresentative Bias

### Cause-and-effect Conclusions

### Statistically significant finding

5.0 stars - 3 reviews
range from 0 to 5

Collection of all individuals about which information is desired

subset of population/everyone has specified probability of selection

info gathered from each included individual

participants are merely observed and measured

characteristic that differs from one individual to the next

treatment, Specific procedure assigned to participants

random assignment, Participant has specified probability of being assigned to treatment

placebo, treatment/pill designed to look just like actual treatment.

a graph in which the results are represented by dots instead of a long list of numbers

calculates the lowest value, the lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and highest value and gives additional insight into results

margin of error, a number added to and subtracted from the sample information to produce an interval that is 95% accurate

statistically significant, large enough that it is unlikely to be coincidental

rate, base rate

risk, baseline risk

practical importance

When people don't respond at all, or only respond to what they want.

People who respond to Unrepresentative sample

Not main concern of study but may be partially responsible for results

Tells you nothing about population

Can't be made on the basis of an observational study

Depending on magnitude of relationship, may have no importance