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Statistics - Collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing information to help people make decisions when faced with uncertainty. by Mind Map: Statistics - Collection
of procedures and
principles for
gathering data and
analyzing information
to help people make
decisions when faced
with uncertainty.
5.0 stars - 3 reviews range from 0 to 5

Statistics - Collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing information to help people make decisions when faced with uncertainty.

Procedures

population

Collection of all individuals about which information is desired

random sample

subset of population/everyone has specified probability of selection

sample survey

info gathered from each included individual

observational study

participants are merely observed and measured

variable

characteristic that differs from one individual to the next

randomized experiment

treatment, Specific procedure assigned to participants

random assignment, Participant has specified probability of being assigned to treatment

placebo, treatment/pill designed to look just like actual treatment.

Data

dotplot

a graph in which the results are represented by dots instead of a long list of numbers

five-number summary

calculates the lowest value, the lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and highest value and gives additional insight into results

median

lower quartile

upper quartile

interpreting data

margin of error, a number added to and subtracted from the sample information to produce an interval that is 95% accurate

statistically significant, large enough that it is unlikely to be coincidental

rate, base rate

risk, baseline risk

practical importance

Problems

nonresponse bias

When people don't respond at all, or only respond to what they want.

self-selected sample (volunteer sample)

People who respond to Unrepresentative sample

confounding variable

Not main concern of study but may be partially responsible for results

Mistakes

Unrepresentative Bias

Tells you nothing about population

Cause-and-effect Conclusions

Can't be made on the basis of an observational study

Statistically significant finding

Depending on magnitude of relationship, may have no importance