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Analgesics by Mind Map: Analgesics

1. Non narcotic analgesic

1.1. Chemical method

1.1.1. Writhing method Characteristic with Stretching behaviour

1.2. Electronic method

1.2.1. Podoodolorimeter method “ grid shock test “ Mice

1.2.2. Tooth pulp method Dog Minimum voltage required to produce reaction

2. Painful stimuli

2.1. Direct stimulation of secondary nerves

2.2. Stimulation of pain receptors by various means

2.2.1. Heart

2.2.2. Pressure

3. Screening and bioassay

3.1. Narcotic analgesic

3.1.1. Mechanical method Tail Clip method Tail Compression method

3.1.2. Thermal method Hot plate method Used with Responses is Tail flick method Tail immersion method

4. Classification

4.1. Narcotic “opioids “

4.2. Non narcotic “ NSAIDs “

5. Antipyretic activity

5.1. Yeast induced pyrexia

5.1.1. Rat

5.1.2. S.c injection of baking yeast (20% aqueous suspension

5.1.3. Measure rectally

5.1.4. Animal developed pyrexia divided to - ve Control + ve control Test

5.2. E pyrogens induced Pyrexia

5.2.1. Rabbits

5.2.2. Measure rectally

5.2.3. I.V injection

5.2.4. LSP induce synthesis of interleukin-1 and activation of PGI in hypothalamic heat regulating center

6. Anti inflammatory agents

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. Drugs which are used for treatment of inflammatory disorders Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis

6.2. Classes

6.2.1. Steroidal anti inflammatory agents “SAIDs” Examples Cortisol Prednisolone Methyl prednisolone Dexamethasone Betamethasone Act Inhibiting phospholipase A2 Inhibit PGs synthesis Inhibit formation of pro inflammatory cytokines

6.2.2. Non steroidal anti inflammatory agents “NSAIDs” Examples Aspirin Indomethacin Diclofinac Piroxicam Tenoxicam Ketoprofen Naproxen Mefenamic acid Ibuprofen Act Inhibiting COX enzymes Inhibit PGs synthesis Selective COX 2 inhibitor

7. Paw Edema method

7.1. Rats

7.2. Definition

7.2.1. Ability of anti inflammatory agents to inhabit swelling and Edema induced in hind paw of rat

7.3. Injection for irritant substance

7.3.1. Carrageenan 1st he release of histamine and serotonin 2nd hr release of bradykinin 3rd hr Release of PGs and NO 4th hr maximal edema

7.3.2. Formalin

7.3.3. Dextran