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1. represents →tools

1.1. development and adaptation of human species

1.1.1. origin 200,000 years ago

1.1.2. •self-awareness •abstract thought •transfer complex information •share fellings and ideas

2. Definition

2.1. Finite SYSTEM of elements and principles that make it possible for speakers to CONSTRUCT sentences to do particular COMMUNICATIVE JOBS

2.1.1. system: Produce and interpret grammatical sentences Grammatical competence

2.1.2. system: the most frequent "job" that people do with language is communicating with other people Communicative competence

3. Distintic Attribute

3.1. -Same genetic information. -Processed by the brain in the same way. -Sounds are organized and combinate according to just a few principles. -The sounds and their combinations are limited and systematic. -Constraints on how words can combine into phrases and sentences.


4.1. Modulary

4.1.1. language is a modular system produce and interpret language using a set of component subsystems (modules) in a ccordinated way. Each module is responsable for a part.

4.2. Constituency and Recursion

4.2.1. all language are organized into constituents :complex units to entre structures where simpler ones are also posible.

4.2.2. can be replaced by other constituents

4.2.3. recursiveness means human brian is capable of producing and understanding an infinite number of sentences. Is the property which allows grammatical processes to be applied repeatedly,combining constituents to produce an infinite variety of sentences of indefinite lengh. so, no learning language memorizing all the sentences.

4.3. Discreteness

4.3.1. the range of sounds that humans beingd can make is continuous but all the languages divide that continuous space of sound into discrete.

4.4. Productivity

4.4.1. cames from the ability of speakers to coin new words

4.5. Arbitrariness

4.5.1. languages are oranized around a finite set of principles which systematically constrain the ways in which sounds,morphemes,words,phrases and sentences may be combined. Words have no principled or systematic connection with that they mean (there are exceptions) English: 36 different sounds→26 letters. Words and sounds are arranged are also arbitrary

4.6. Reliance on context

4.6.1. duality: the same sequence of sounds can represent different concepts in the same language so,you rely on its context coin(verb)/coin (noun)