BIOMOLECULES

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BIOMOLECULES by Mind Map: BIOMOLECULES

1. What are they?

1.1. Any of numerous substances that are produced by cells and living organisms.

1.2. They share a fundamental relationship between structure and function.

1.3. They are very large molecules of many atoms, which are linked covalently.

1.4. These make up the chemical composition of all living beings, depending on the way in which they are grouped and interact with each other

1.5. Carbon and hydrogen with nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphoru

2. Types

2.1. CARBOHYDRATES

2.1.1. Store fuel for future energy needs

2.2. LIPIDS

2.2.1. They serve as a source of stored energy

2.3. NUCLEIC ACIDS

2.3.1. Storing an organism’s genetic code

2.4. PROTEINS

2.4.1. Provide structural support, catalyze metabolic reactions or receive and transmit signals.

3. Functions

3.1. Proteins and lipids serve as supporting material for cells, maintaining the structure of membranes and tissues.

3.2. Some molecules serve to mobilize nutrients and other substances throughout the body

3.3. The energy necessary to sustain life in living organisms is obtained through a process called oxidation.

3.4. Genetic Functions

3.5. Catalyzing the biochemical reactions

3.6. Lipids are also an essential source of energy.

4. Monomers and polymers

4.1. Polymers

4.1.1. Large molecules-long chains

4.1.2. They can be normal-sized or giant molecules called polymers.

4.1.3. Union of hundreds of thousands of small molecules called monomers that form huge chains of the most diverse forms

4.1.4. Most of the polymers that we use in our daily lives are synthetic materials with varied properties and applications.

4.1.5. Polymers have excellent mechanical strength because large polymer chains attract each other

4.2. Monomers

4.2.1. Monomers form polymers by forming chemical bonds or joining supramolecularly through a process called polymerization.

4.2.2. Polymers are sometimes formed from linked groups of monomer subunits, called oligomers.

4.2.3. They can bind to other small molecules

4.2.4. They are mixtures of macromolecules of different molecular weights.