Grammar in the EL classroom

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Grammar in the EL classroom by Mind Map: Grammar in the EL classroom

1. Pros and Cons of presenting grammar

1.1. Grammar as meaning

1.1.1. Linguistic meaning plays an important role

1.1.1.1. Meaning can change when the same grammatical items are used differently

1.1.2. Role of intonation

1.1.2.1. Teachers need to keep in mind the link between grammar and intonation

1.2. Grammar in discourse

1.2.1. The role of context

1.2.1.1. How meaning can be put together in spoken and written discourse e.g. connotations

1.2.1.1.1. Linking signals

1.2.1.1.2. Linking constructions

1.2.1.1.3. General purpose link

1.2.1.1.4. Substitution and omission

1.2.1.1.5. Presenting and focusing information

1.2.1.1.6. Order and emphasis

1.2.2. Cons: simply spoken discourse uses the grammar rules as it wishes

1.3. Grammar and style

1.3.1. Variety of English

1.3.1.1. Differences according geography and situation

1.3.2. Lexical variation

2. Designing grammar components

2.1. Contrastive analysis: comparison between learners' native language and the target language

2.1.1. Popular in the 1960s and 1970s

2.1.2. Method of predicting difficulty for learners: differences between two languages would lead to difficulties

2.2. Error analysis: comparison between learners' interlanguage and the target language

2.2.1. Provide teachers with insights into the main problems learners might have while learning English

2.3. Natural order hypothesis

2.3.1. Language rules are acquired according to a predictable sequence and the sequence remains the same whether or not classroom learning is involved

2.4. Precise decisions about the grammar components of any course will depend on the needs of the particular group of learners these are planned for

3. The role of grammar

3.1. Grammar has played a central role for many teachers

3.2. Anti-grammar movement in the 1980s

3.2.1. Grammar can be acquired naturally from meaningful input and the opportunities to interact in the classroom

3.2.2. Grammatical competence can be developed in a fluency-oriented environment

3.3. Current methodology does not replicate old musters

3.3.1. The teaching of grammar should fit the learners' learning process

3.4. Various issues

3.4.1. 1. Usefulness of grammar-based knowledge and grammar-based practice in relation to the ways learners move towards language production

3.4.2. 2. Value of focused and unfocused activities in relation to age, level of exposure to English, and reasons for learning the language

3.5. Strong relationship between grammar and vocabulary

3.5.1. Key point for designing teaching materials

4. Principles of learning grammar

4.1. Noticing

4.1.1. Learners pick up specific features of the language and pay attention to them

4.1.2. The language feature has to be noticeable

4.1.3. After items have been noticed and a bridge between form and meaning has been created, these features become part of the learning process

4.2. Reasoning and hypothesizing

4.2.1. (Adult) learners use their capacity to analyze new language

4.2.1.1. Able to see the patterns in a language

4.2.1.2. Create hypothesis about the rules of the patterns

4.2.1.3. Revise hypothesis according to new information

4.2.2. Reasoning deductively

4.2.2.1. Learners apply rules they already know to work out the meaning of what they hear or to formulate what they want to say

4.2.3. Analyzing contrastively

4.2.3.1. Learners compare their first and second languages and work out similarities and differences

4.2.3.2. Comparison also possible between two different foreign languages

4.2.4. Translating

4.2.4.1. Mentally translation in the early and consolidation stages of learning a foreign language can be a helpful strategy

4.2.5. Transferring

4.2.5.1. Learners apply knowledge of one language to the understanding or production of another

4.3. Structuring and restructuring

4.3.1. As learners work out new rules, these have to be integrated into the representation of grammar they hold in their minds

4.3.2. Evidence of this reasoning are the errors the learners make

4.4. Automatizing

4.4.1. The language has been automatized when the learners can achieve regular and consistent responses in conversations

4.4.2. Automatization can be achieved through repeated practice of a successful form

4.4.3. This process occurs naturally when learners learn the language outside the classroom

5. Learners' needs and grammar

5.1. The way in which learners respond to teachers' choice of approach in teaching grammar depends on their individual cognitive style

5.1.1. Analytical learner vs. global learner

5.1.1.1. Analytical learner: learn grammar from a formal perspective: look for rules and relationships; work out the grammatical underlying system; apply the rules learned

5.1.1.2. Global learner: experimental learning through classroom communication, which encourages guessing and structuring

5.2. Teachers should use different approaches and provide a variety of access to grammar that appeals to different learning styles. Especially suitable for multicultural classrooms

5.3. Take into account factors of individual differences: age, educational background, etc.

6. Principles of teaching grammar

6.1. Presenting grammar

6.1.1. Contextualizing grammar

6.1.1.1. The contexts in which grammar is embedded need to be generally useful and appropriate to the needs of the learners group

6.1.2. Order of presentation

6.1.2.1. Which forms of the grammatical item to teach and in what order, and which forms to leave for the recycling stages

6.1.3. Use of terminology

6.1.3.1. Degree to which grammatical terminology is useful in the presentation of grammar, e.g. metalanguage is appropriate for advanced learners

6.1.4. Degree of explicitness

6.1.4.1. How explicitly grammatical information is provided to the learner

6.1.5. Linking grammar and vocabulary

6.2. Practicing grammar

6.2.1. Present a grammatical structure to learners and ask them to practice it in controlled activities which focus on accurate reproduction of the structure: PPP Model -Presentation, Practice, Production

6.2.1.1. Teacher corrections important during presentation and practice stages (self and peer-correction is encouraged)

6.2.1.2. Non-intervention policy during production stage (feedback is given afterwards)