Climate (Geography)

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Climate (Geography) by Mind Map: Climate (Geography)

1. causes of enhanced greenhouse effect

1.1. burning of fossil fuels for example through industrialisation.

1.2. deforestation meaning you are loosing those carbon stores.

1.3. growth of transport infrastructures

2. cattle ranching and rice farming increasing wealth and population size.

3. What is Climate?

3.1. 2 factors of climate: temperature, precipitation.

3.2. you measure it over a 30 year period in a pacific area.

3.3. We are currently living in the Quartenary period that lasted 2.6 million years. Triggered by the last ice age.

4. Natural causes of climate change

4.1. Milankovitch (orbital forcing)

4.1.1. Obliquity ( axial tilt)

4.1.1.1. Changes the angle of earths tilt over 42,000 years. Can change from 22.5 degrees to 24.5 degrees.

4.1.1.2. meaning it becomes warmer and close affecting hemispheres differently

4.1.2. Preccession 'the wobble'

4.1.2.1. it wobbles on its axis on a 24,000 year cycle.

4.1.2.2. bigger seasonal differences in temperature.

4.1.3. Eccentricity

4.1.3.1. 96,000 year cycle. earth orbit becomes more eliptical.

4.1.3.2. More obvious changes in seasons

4.2. Sunspots

4.2.1. they are tiny magnetic storms on the suns surface. they give off more heat. Can increase earths temp by 10%.

4.2.2. We start to see more sunspots every 9 years.

4.3. Volcanic eruption

4.3.1. decreases temp short term so it blocks incoming solar radiation by ash clouds and it also reflects some back. (Albedio effect)

4.3.2. increases temp long term release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere which then trap hear e.g. carbon dioxide

4.3.3. every 100 years

5. Evidence for natural climate change

5.1. Ice cores

5.1.1. looking for bubbles of oxygen and carbon dioxide (laminations) happening annually which is a major strength. more carbon dioxide meaning it is hotter.

5.1.2. distinguishing layers once you get nearer the bottom.

5.2. tree rings

5.2.1. annual growth

5.2.2. if it is warmer and wetter this means the tree rings with be thicker.

5.3. Historical records

5.3.1. you can have crop records, diarys or paintings.

6. Greenhouse effect and Enhanced greenhouse

6.1. greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrous oxide and a little sulfur

6.2. enhanced greenhouse effect: more of those natrual gases, carbon monoxide, more methane and coraflora carbons (CFC's)

7. Consequences of climate change

7.1. rising sea levels

7.1.1. thermal expansion meaning volume of water level is increasing

7.1.2. very little from melting ice caps and glaciers (around 10%).

7.2. more extreme weather

7.3. increased storm frequency

7.4. Arctic sea ice melting

7.5. rising global temp

7.5.1. could lead to species lost

7.5.2. could lead to famine

8. Atmospheric circulation

8.1. 3 circulation cells

8.1.1. Hadley, Ferrel, Polar

8.2. high pressure = air is sinking so you will experience dry weather. Biome that occurs here is a desert due to the dry lands.

8.3. low pressure = air rising so you will experience more rain as you are forcing condensation to occur. Biome that occurs here is Rainforests at the equator.

9. Tropical Cyclones

9.1. key ingredients

9.1.1. warm water over 26.5 degrees

9.1.2. in between the tropics

9.1.3. low pressure = a depression

9.1.4. storms that cluster together

9.1.5. light wind shear to move the tropical cyclone along.

9.1.6. Coriolis effect occurs

9.1.6.1. causes the tropical cyclone to spin.caused by the rotation of the earth. The equator spins fastest because it has a bigger area to cover in the same time.

9.1.6.2. winds are deflected away from the equator

9.2. How are they measured

9.2.1. The are measured using the Saffir- Simpson Scale

9.2.1.1. goes from 1 to 5

9.2.1.2. measures wind speed

9.3. how to tropical cyclones dissipate?

9.3.1. Go over land they don't have water as an energy source.

9.3.2. entering colder water usually if they go outside the tropics

9.3.3. meet another tropical cyclone or strong winds break the cluster apart

10. why are some places more vulnerable to tropical cyclones compared to others?

10.1. economic

10.1.1. less technology to predict and track tropical cyclone paths

10.1.1.1. meaning they might not be able to prepare and evacuate with enough time

10.1.1.2. less technology for warning systems meaning people are less prepared and bad communications

10.1.2. poorly built infrastructure made of more fragile materials means they break more easily.

10.1.2.1. keep rebuilding damage may not be able to afford it may rely on aid to do so e.g. Phillipians

10.1.2.2. buildings more likley to collapse throughout the cyclone meaning a higher death toll

10.1.2.3. might not be prepared it were to ever hit again so people are unable to reccrut

10.1.2.4. responces slowed due to broken or blocked transport infrastructure.

10.1.3. reliant on international aid meaning the responce time is slowed down

10.1.4. less public services e.g. education people are less prepared to respond to hazards

10.1.4.1. lack of poor health care services= increased death toll

10.1.4.2. search and rescue emergency services lack funding

10.1.4.2.1. lack of equipment for example first aid kits.

10.2. social

10.2.1. wealth distributions poorer are harder to evacuate due to access of transport.

10.2.2. age groups of population might impact vulnerability old/young are more at risk as harder and slower to evacuate

10.2.2.1. more at risk of diseases e.g cholera

10.2.3. higher population density= higher death toll.

10.2.4. couldn't afford transport harder to evacuate.

10.2.5. didn't evacuate as didn't want to leave home as it was all they had left.

10.2.6. employment structure e.g. farmers loosing crops due to being destroyed.

10.2.6.1. no crops to feed the population as a long term effect.

10.3. physical

10.3.1. islands mean tropical cyclones dissipate over land

10.3.2. low - lying coastal areas more at risk of storm surges and flooding.

10.3.3. time of day

10.3.4. strength of the tropical cyclone

10.3.4.1. pacific = larger ocean = more energy

10.3.5. sediment type

10.3.5.1. makes it more vulnerable to risk of land slides

10.3.6. lack of vegetation to absorb floodwater presence of mangroves.

10.3.7. shape of the bays can cause the storm surge to gain height.