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1. Challenges

1.1. Pre-COVID

1.1.1. Producing more diverse, healthy, safer, and nutritious food

1.2. During COVID

1.2.1. Food access concerns

1.2.2. Food production

1.3. Chronic challenges

1.3.1. Low productivity and income

1.3.2. Climate change

1.3.3. Food diversity

2. Issues

2.1. Global

2.1.1. Increasing demand and consumption

2.1.2. Narrowed food diversity

2.1.3. Adaptability and suitability of crops

2.1.4. Adverse environmental effects

2.1.5. Complicated food supply chain

2.2. Local

2.2.1. Combatting malnutrition

2.2.2. National food security

2.2.3. Sustainability of agriculture

2.2.4. Poverty among farmers

2.2.5. Inflation

3. Processes

3.1. 1. Site selection and evaluation

3.1.1. Approaches Identified crop before selecting site 1. Crop feasibility study 2. Site determination Identified site before selecting crop 1. Site characterization 2. Crop identification

3.1.2. Factors to consider Good location Infrastructures Socio-economic condition Suitable soil Texture, structure, pH, depth, nutrient content Favorable climate Temperature Light Rainfall Climate type

3.2. 2. Land preparation

3.2.1. Methods Conventional method Lowland crops Minimum tillage/No tillage Upland crops Hilly land

3.3. 3. Crop establishment

3.3.1. 3.1. Selection and preparation of planting materials Sexual propagation Seed treatments Rootstock seedlings Vegetable seedlings Asexual propagation stems roots leaves Grafting

3.3.2. 3.2. Laying out Planting distance Planting systems Square Triangular Quincunx Contour Population density Factors Cropping system

3.3.3. 3.3. Planting operations Direct seeding Broadcasting Hill method Drill method Dibble Transplanting

3.4. 4. Care and maintenance

3.4.1. 4.1. Special practices Chemical methods Plant Growth Regulators Physical methods • Pruning • Windbreak establishment • Smudging • Girdling • Training

3.4.2. 4.2 Nutrition Soil nutrient Available Loss Addition

3.4.3. 4.3 Pest management Pest types Pathogens Insect and mites Weeds Vertebrate pests Controls Genotypical Biological Physical Cultural Chemical

3.5. 5. Harvesting

3.5.1. Approach Manual Conveyor-aided Mechanical

3.5.2. Methods Priming Stripping Tapping

3.5.3. Maturity indices Visual Physical Compositional Phenological

3.6. 6. Postharvest handling

3.6.1. Perishables Trimming Cleaning Sorting Grading Coating Ripening Ethylene gas Acetylene Bioethylene Smoking Packaging Flexible Semi-rigid Rigid

3.6.2. Durables Primary processing Extracting Drying Fermentation