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MED by Mind Map: MED

1. Media and society

1.1. Media Economic

1.1.1. Mass Production, mass distribution

1.1.1.1. Mass production and mass distribution have been the keys to economic success.

1.2. Media Scholar

1.2.1. the benifit of competition

1.2.1.1. In the presence of competition, cost savings resulting from economies of scale may be passed along to consumers. When this happens, the law of supply and demand dictates that more people will consume the product, leading to further economies of scale, further improvements in production and products, and so on in a spiral effect

1.2.1.2. Competition still benefits the consumer even when marginal costs are low, such as television programming distribution.

1.2.2. Media Monopolies

1.2.2.1. having only one newspaper in town creates a newspaper monopoly

1.2.2.2. New York City has three daily newspapers—that is an oligopoly

1.2.2.3. And when there are two independent outlets, it is called a duopoly.

1.2.3. The Profit Motive

1.2.3.1. For privately owned media companies, everything is ultimately subordinate to the flow of profits, including the content of the media and the audiences they seek. The owners of the media must turn a profit after paying all their operating costs and their taxes. They also have to pay back their entry costs, the money they borrowed from banks or their investors to put their production and distribution apparatus in place, with interest. These capital costs for a local newspaper include the printing presses; the building and all of the equipment and furniture in it; a fl eet of trucks to distribute the papers; and the personnel for reporting, designing, advertising, selling, and distributing the newspaper. Moreover, the rate of profi t must match or exceed that which investors could realize if they invested in other types of businesses or just left their money in the bank (Picard, 2002; Vogel, 2007). This economic pressure is so great that media sometimes compromise their public service obligations.

1.2.3.2. the different methods the media use to recoup their first-copy costs

1.2.3.3. In advertising-supported electronic media such as television, radio, and commercial websites, the cost of each additional copy is virtually zero. But the value to the advertiser increases with the increased number of households.

1.2.4. How media make money

1.2.4.1. Direct Sales

1.2.4.1.1. occur when consumers pay lump sums to purchase products that they own, such as iPods.

1.2.4.2. Rentals

1.2.4.2.1. also involve direct payment for a product, except that the consumer only borrows the product, such as DVD rentals. A retail outlet buys the product from a manufacturer and recoups the purchase price by renting it multiple times.

1.2.4.3. Subscriptions

1.2.4.3.1. are payments for a continuing service rather than a single product. Newspapers, magazines, and cable and satellite companies

1.2.4.4. Usage fees

1.2.4.4.1. include admission fees to movies or theaters and payper-view movies on TV.

1.2.4.5. Advertising

1.2.4.5.1. is the main economic base for most newspapers and magazines and all commercial television and radio stations. Advertisers buy commercial time or page space from the media, and the rates are set in relation to the number of people who are likely to be exposed to the ad.The more people who see or hear the ad, the more that media companies can charge advertisers.

1.2.4.6. Syndication

1.2.4.6.1. is the rental of content to media outlets, rather than to the consumer. Newspaper cartoons and reruns of old television series are syndicated to the media outlets that distribute them locally.

1.2.4.7. License fees

1.2.4.7.1. compensate the creators of media content for the use of their original ideas. For example, songwriters receive a copyright royalty fee collected from Internet radio stations that play their songs.

1.2.4.8. Subsidies

1.2.4.8.1. are provided for communications media that society considers desirable, but that commercial interests do not fi nd profi table. PBS is subsidized by federal, state, and local taxes.

1.2.4.9. Voluntary donations

1.2.4.9.1. are made by corporations, private foundations and individuals to media that provide a public service, like National Public Radio. Also, some creators let you download their software and games, and then pay if you like them.

1.2.5. From Mass markets to market segment

1.2.5.1. technological changes and receptivity by audiences and advertisers encourage media to engage in narrowcasting, to target smaller, more specific audience segments with more specialized content

1.2.5.2. conventional media forms like the broadcast TV networks that have lost audiences to narrowcasters have had to respond with more narrowly targeted programs of their own.

1.2.6. New media Economic

1.2.6.1. Popular sites on the World Wide Web and electronic commerce have pushed segmentation to a new extreme: personalization.

1.2.6.2. The logic behind personalized content, customized for individuals, is similar to that of narrowcasting except the market segments shrink to specific individuals.

1.2.6.3. Personalization works to the advertisers’ benefit, giving them the ability to target ads very precisely to specific people who are actually in the market for their products.

1.2.6.4. The Internet challenges basic assumptions of media economics, since reproduction and distribution costs are greatly reduced (Kahin & Varian, 2000). That means it may no longer make sense to charge for exclusive access to content as the older media do, but rather to charge only for the timeliness or convenience of information (Gilder, 2000; Odlyzko, 2001)

1.3. Critical Studies

1.3.1. Political economy

1.3.1.1. Kinh tế chính trị lấy cảm hứng từ công trình của nhà kinh tế chính trị thế kỷ XIX Karl Marx. Marx viết rằng xã hội dựa trên mối quan hệ giữa những người sở hữu tư liệu sản xuất (ví dụ, các nhà máy điện tử tiêu dùng và nhà in ấn) và những người làm việc cho họ.

1.3.1.2. Theo quan điểm này, lợi ích của chủ sở hữu sẽ bị truyền thông và văn hóa gạt bỏ, bởi vì các nhóm thống trị trong một xã hội - thường là những người sở hữu các tập đoàn lớn - muốn tạo ra sự đồng thuận cơ bản, hay quyền bá chủ, về ý thức hệ ủng hộ việc tiếp tục của họ sự thống trị

1.3.2. Ferminist Studies

1.3.2.1. Feminist critics of the media have concerns that parallel those of political economists to some degree, but focus on the oppression of women by men rather than the oppression of the working class by the ruling class

1.3.2.2. The oppression also has economic dimensions. Women typically earn only about two-thirds of what men make in comparable jobs, so the perpetuation of sexism in the images we see in the media benefi ts the owners of media organizations and their associates who run corporate America

1.3.3. Ethic media studies

1.3.3.1. Scholars such as Herman Gray (1995) critique a deeper level of structural problems with race and media. They argue that racial depictions are a form of ideology, designed to keep whiteness associated with dominance and power, whereas black and brown minorities are pointed toward inferior social roles

1.4. Post Modernism

1.4.1. Many scholars argue that in art, culture, and society we are now in a postmodern era.

1.4.2. We have moved from an era of economic determinism, in which economic phenomena determine all others, to a time of cultural determinism (Baudrillard, 1983).

1.5. Diffusion of Innovation

1.5.1. why do innovation succeed?

1.5.1.1. How quickly an innovation diffuses depends on several other factors besides its cost: What do people think are the relative advantages of the new idea compared to existing ways of doing things? How compatible is it with existing ways of doing things? How complex do people feel the new technology is to operate? How easy is it to try out the new way before committing a lot of time or money to it? Can people observe others using the innovation successfully?

1.5.2. How do innovation spread?

1.6. Media and Public Opinion

1.7. Technological Determinism

2. The Internet

2.1. History: Spinning the Web

2.2. Technology Trends: Following Moore's Law

2.3. Inside the Internet

2.4. The Industry: David vs. Goliath

2.5. Web Designer

2.6. Content: What's on the Internet

2.7. Media, the Internet and the Stories we tell about ourselves

3. Media Policy and Law

3.1. Guiding the Media

3.2. Communications Policies

3.3. George Carlin and the "seven dirty words"

3.4. Consumer Pravicy tips and rights

3.5. Universal Service

3.6. The Policy-Making process

4. Media Ethics

4.1. Ethical Thinking

4.2. Ethical Principles

4.3. Codes of Ethics

4.4. Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics seek truth and report it

4.5. Ethical Issues

4.6. PR ethics

4.7. Guideline for Internet Advertising and Marketing