Oil & Gas Exploration & Production

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Oil & Gas Exploration & Production by Mind Map: Oil & Gas Exploration & Production

1. Midstream

1.1. Gathering

1.1.1. flowline

1.1.2. flow gathering system

1.2. Gas plants

1.3. Gas processing

1.3.1. Acid gas removal

1.3.1.1. Absorption

1.3.1.2. Adsorption

1.3.1.3. Cryogenic removal

1.3.1.4. Membrane

1.3.2. Dehydration

1.3.2.1. glycol-based scrubbers

1.3.2.2. PSA

1.3.2.3. membranes

1.3.3. Mercury removal

1.3.3.1. molecular sieves

1.3.4. NGL recovery and treatment

1.3.5. Sales gas specifications

1.3.5.1. volume

1.3.5.2. calorific value

1.3.5.3. wobbe index

1.3.5.4. methane number

1.3.5.5. H2S and overall sulfur content

1.3.5.6. mercury

1.3.5.6.1. <0.001 ppb

1.3.5.7. dew point

1.3.5.8. Particle and other substances

1.3.5.9. additives

1.3.5.9.1. Tetrahydrothiophene(THT) added for the smell to warn in case of leakage

1.3.6. Nitrogen rejection

1.3.6.1. cryogenic distillation

1.3.6.2. adsorption with lean oil

1.4. Pipelines

1.4.1. Terminal

1.4.2. Gas pipeline

1.4.3. Liquid pipeline

1.4.4. Management, control and safety

1.4.4.1. supervisory control

1.4.4.2. demand forecasting

1.4.4.3. safety systems eg HIPPS

1.5. LNG

1.5.1. Liquefaction

1.5.1.1. cascade cycle

1.5.1.2. mixed refrigerant cycle

1.5.1.3. expander cycle

1.5.2. Storage, transport and regasification

1.5.2.1. store at boiling cryogen(auto refrigeration)

2. Upstream

2.1. Manifold and gathering

2.2. Separation

2.2.1. Production separators

2.2.2. Second stage separator

2.2.3. Third stage separator

2.2.4. Coalescer

2.2.5. Electrostatic desalter

2.2.6. Water treatment

2.3. Gas treatment and compression

2.3.1. Heat exchangers

2.3.2. Scrubbers and reboilers

2.3.3. Compressors, anti-surge and performance

2.4. Oil and gas storage, metering and export

2.4.1. Fiscal metering

2.4.2. Storage

2.4.3. Marine loading

3. Exploration

3.1. Reservoir

3.1.1. Crude oil

3.1.2. Natural gas

3.1.3. Condensates

3.2. Well

3.2.1. well casing

3.2.1.1. conductor casing (7-17m)

3.2.1.2. surface casing (100-400m)

3.2.1.3. intermediate

3.2.1.4. production casing

3.2.2. wellhead

3.3. Artificial lift

3.3.1. Rod pumps

3.3.2. Electrical Submerged pumps

3.3.3. Gas lift

3.3.4. Plunger lift

4. Refining

4.1. Fractional distillation

4.2. Basic products

4.2.1. LPG

4.2.2. naphtha

4.2.3. gasoline

4.2.4. kerosene

4.2.5. diesel oil

4.2.6. lubricating oils

4.2.7. fuel oils

4.2.8. bitumen

4.3. Upgrading and advanced processes

4.4. Blending and distribution

5. Petrochemical

5.1. Aromatics

5.2. Olefins

5.3. Syngas

6. Utility systems

6.1. Process control systems

6.2. Digital oilfield

6.3. Power generation, distribution and drives

6.4. Flare

6.5. Intrument air

6.6. HVAC

6.7. Water systems

6.8. Chemical & additives

6.8.1. scale inhibitor

6.8.2. emulsion breaker

6.8.3. antifoam

6.8.4. polyelcctrolyte

6.8.5. methanol

6.8.5.1. prevent hydrates formation and corrosion.

6.8.6. Triethyleneglycol(TEG)

6.8.6.1. dry gases

6.8.7. Hypochlorite

6.8.7.1. prevent growth of algae and bacteria. produced via electrolysis of seawater.

6.8.8. Biocides

6.8.9. corrosion inhibitor

6.8.9.1. inject in pipeline and tanks.form thin film on metal surfaces to prevent corrosion

6.8.10. drag reducers

6.8.10.1. improve flow in pipeline.

6.9. Telecommunication

7. Unconventional sources of O&G

7.1. Extra heavy crude

7.2. Tar Sands

7.3. Oil shale

7.4. Shale gas and coal bed methane

7.5. Coal, gas to liquids and synthetic fuel

7.6. Methane hydrates

7.7. Biofuels

7.8. Hydrogen

8. Emissions and environmental effects

8.1. Indigenous emissions

8.2. Greenhouse emissions

8.3. Carbon capture and sequestration

8.3.1. Pre-combustion systems

8.3.1.1. fuel is gasified before combustion and CO2 removed from a relatively pure exhaust stream.

8.3.2. Post-combustion systems

8.3.2.1. extracted from flue gas after combustion

8.3.3. Oxyfuel consumption

8.3.3.1. fuel burnt in pure O2 produce CO2 and H2O only.