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Religious Studies GCSE Revision: RELIGION AND MEDICINE by Mind Map: Religious Studies GCSE
Revision: RELIGION AND
MEDICINE
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Religious Studies GCSE Revision: RELIGION AND MEDICINE

God is interested and involved in each human's life

advance in medicine have led to people being kept alive who would have previously died but their quality of life is appalling

for many modern medical issues there are no clear religious teachings

ISLAM

organ donation, all the organs and parts of a human body whether Muslim or a non-Muslim are sacred and must not be tampered with., to benefit from any part of a human without a need is unlawful (haram), but Islamic scholars are divided on this, another view:, 'Necessity makes prohibition lawful' Qur'an has been used to support human organ donation saving or significantly enhancing a life of another human, "Whosoever helps another will be granted help from Allah." Prophet Muhammad

blood transfusions, to benefit from any part of a human without a need is unlawful (haram), blood is sacred like all other parts of a human, Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, 'Necessity makes prohibition lawful' Qur'an, but in Islamic rulings can be said that blood transfusion is lawful as a necessity just as Islamic law has permitted women's milk for infants out of necessity, despite it being part of a human body, blood (when taken out) is impure and to benefit from something that is impure is unlawful., but it would be permitted to donate and transfuse blood under the following conditions: a) The donor is mature and sane, b) The donor willingly donates his blood. c) There is no apparent risk to the life or health of the donor d) There is absolute necessity in donating blood in that there is a definite risk to the life of a patient, and in the opinion of the medical expert, there is no other way in saving his/her life, e) There is a need for it, that is, there is no risk to the life, but in the opinion of the experts, restoration of health may not be possible without it, f) There is no reasonable alternative g) It is not for the sake of other additional benefit h) Transfusion of blood must not be carried out by way of buying and selling, for trading in human parts is never permissible. However, if one is in need of blood desperately and the only means to obtain the blood is to purchase it, then only will it be permissible to pay for the blood.

plastic surgery, to remove a defect which disfigures the original physical structure, is allowed in Islam because it is a form of treatment, cosmetic surgery to attain beauty, it is considered as changing the creation of Allah so not allowed

testing drugs, Islamic scholars are divided on whether drugs testing is acceptable, The Qur'an tells Muslims to treat animals with compassion and not to abuse them so drug testing on animals which cause harm is not allowed

ABORTION

ISLAM

'ensoulment' (receiving a soul) takes place at 120 days after conception (some say 40 days) so abortion is not allowed after this time

only Allah can take away life, "And no soul can die but with Allah's permission — the term is fixed" Qur'an (3:145).

abortion for econonmic reasons is forbidden in the Qur'an

abortion to save the life of the mother is seen by some to be acceptable

Allah takes a person's intention (niyyah) into account at judgement, niyyah, a legally required statement of intent, made prior to all acts of devotion, "To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. And whether you manifest what is in your minds or hide it, Allah will call you to account according to it. So He forgives whom He pleases and chastises whom He pleases. And Allah is Possessor of power over all things." Qur'an Ch. 2:284

Under UK Legislation abortion is legal up to 24 weeks (168 days) The Abortion Act 1967

CHRISTIANITY

Roman Catholic and Orthodox denominations are against abortion in any circumstance, the official positon is that a human person begins at conception so the human embyos has the same moral status as human persons, abortion is murder

generally Christians have concerns about abortion because of beliefs, sanctity of life, life in all forms is precious and sacred, Only God should take life away, 'In his hands is the life and every living thing and the breath of every human being' Job 12.10, references to the Ten Commandments, thou shalt not kill, people being in the image of God

other denominations are against abortion for social reasons, but will accept it in certain situations, the mother's life being at risk

many Christian denominations leave the decision to individuals, 'free will', the belief that humans have free choices in life

MEDICAL ETHICS

but there are key principles or values from religious traditions that guide believers in making decisions on these issues

SEARCH SCARED TEXTS, for references or beliefs that may relate to the issue

ANALYSE INTENTIONS, and measure them against other relevant teachings

DISCUSS, the matter with other believers and with 'experts' in the religion and the issue

THINK, about the ultimate principles in the religion that will have an impact on the issue

CONSIDER, the effects on themselves and others and society, weigh up whether these are compatible with basic beliefs

PRAY, about the issues involved and seek guidance directly from God

issues to evaluate

how do doctors make ethical decisions?, Hippocratic Oath, most important factor, it affects every decision a doctor makes, doctors are expected to take account of someone's faith and beliefs, long term have to be considered not just the short term effects on patient, what you think

what are the dilemmas faced by scientific advancements?, some surgery and medical treatments are just cosmetic and not life saving, so are they really necessary?, new drugs need to be tested before they can be used safely, how is it best to do this?, donating organs raises lots of issues, using life support machine is necessary unless the person is totally dependent on it, is it always right to preserve life?, sometimes we have to accept our time is up

how does religion help or hinder people making decisions?, having clear beliefs and principles can make it easier to make a decision, Religious teaching and guidance can also help people facing difficult decisions, for some modern medical issues there are no clear specific teachings in religions or their scriptures, difficult to get agreement between all people in the same religion, makes decisions difficult, answers through prayer

does the decision depend on the situation?, every situation is different, the role of conscience, a person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour, the role of utilitarianism, means maximizing happiness and reducing suffering.. for greater good?, the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome, it can never depend on the situation, there are some ultimate principles too, balance between the situation and the teachings that matter to you

IVF / FERTILITY TREATMENT

A). Describe Christian beliefs about the role of men an woman. (8 marks) The idea of man and woman as partners, created 'equal before god' is ingrained throughout the Christian faith. B). Explain how Christian beliefs might affect a couple's attitude towards the use of artificial methods of contraception. (7 marks) C). 'Marriage should be for life and divorce should never be allowed.' Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer, and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. (5 marks)

ISLAM

Marriage is a social, spiritual, and/or legal union of individuals. This union may also be called matrimony, while the ceremony that marks its beginning is usually called a wedding and the married...

IVF is acceptable if the sperm and the egg are from the husband and wife, sex is an act of worship, sex should only happen in marriage

IVF is allowed if the male has a disease

The Qur'an states that sperm or semen should not be destroyed or wasted, 'ensoulment' (receiving a soul) takes place at 120 days after conception (some say 40 days) so throwing away some fertilised eggs is accepted, "And no soul can die but with Allah's permission — the term is fixed" Qur'an (3:145).

It is also important for children to know who their parents are

in-vitro fertilisation

where the egg of a woman is fertilised outside the womb, either using the husband's sperm or a donor's sperm, the fertilised egg is then placed in the womb

CHRISTIANITY

Roman Catholic Church, all embryo technology is banned because it involves throwing away some fertilised eggs, the official positon is that a human person begins at conception so the human embyos has the same moral status as human persons, fertilisation takes place outside of the sex act, sex is a gift from God, Life is given by God, and no one has the right to children, Only God should take life away, 'In his hands is the life and every living thing and the breath of every human being' Job 12.10, children have a right to know who their parents are

Other denominations, accept that embryo technology involves disposing of some fertilised eggs, accept children have a right to know who their parents are, accept fertilisation is outside of the sex act

but might also say, it provides happiness to the couple, technology is also a God's gift, the cost isn't always justifiable when so many children are starving, costs in Wales can be between £3000 - £6000, moral issue... conscience

EUTHANASIA

ISLAM

taking any life is wrong

only Allah can take away life

suffering has a purpose, suffering is part of Allah's great plan, is a kind of test, Qur'an, 'The truly righteous are those who endure with fortitude misfortune, hardship, peril. That is, who are patient in poverty and affliction, and in time of war' Qur'an 2:178, can lead to good

compassion should be shown to those in pain or suffering, supporting those suffering and in need is one of the five pillars of faith

literally means 'gentle or easy death'

different types, Voluntary euthanasia, the person is mentally stable and has made the decision for themselves to die, eg the person decides to commit suicide, Involuntary euthanasia, the patient is unconscious and the decision is made for them, eg turning off life support, Passive euthanasia, refusing to take treatment that could prevent you from dying resulting in a sooner death, eg refusing a heart transplant, Assisted suicide, providing a seriously ill person with the means to die, eg assisting a person to travel to a country for euthanasia eg Switzerland

all types are crimes under British Law and persons involved can go to prison

social reasons against euthanasia, Hippocratic Oath, a promise that doctors take to preserve life at all costs, a cure may be found, unscrupulous relatives might abuse euthanasia to gain money from wills, people may not be mentally stable and it may not be an informed decision

argument for change in legislation, doctors and relatives should be allowed to provide a painless death, people on life support can be taken off, if this type of euthanasia is permitted so should other forms of euthanasia

CHRISTIANITY

Roman Catholic and Orthodox denominations are against euthanasia in any circumstance, taking a life is wrong, because of the belief in the sanctity of life, Roman Catholics want it kept illegal

taking a life is wrong, because of the belief in the sanctity of life, life in all forms is precious and sacred

life is a gift from God, and only he can take it away, 'In his hands is the life and every living thing and the breath of every human being' Job 12.10

death is not the final end, but is a 'doorway' to life after death

suffering can have a purpose, suffering can lead to good things, help develop inner strength, lead to inner strength and ability to overcome suffering, Job, Job, a book and character in the Bible. Job endured much suffering but did not lose faith in God

hospices offer an alternative, where patient and family are supported, those suffering should be helped and supported, this is in keeping with the Gospel tradition

some Christian believe 'You don't have to strive to keep yourself allive' means you don't have to battle endlessly to live, they believe if people were in so much pain that God will not regard suicide as sin, 'If we live, we live for the Lord, and if we die, we die for the Lord, so that alive or dead we belong to the Lord' Romans 14.8, switching off life support machines and removal of artificial feeding would be acceptable

SANCTITY OF LIFE

ISLAM

every soul has been created by Allah

Allah has a plan for each life

only Allah can take away life, "And no soul can die but with Allah's permission — the term is fixed" Qur'an (3:145).

No one has the right to take their own life or anyone else's life

life in all forms is precious and sacred

most religions have teachings about avoiding taking a life

CHRISTIANITY

Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular...

Life is sacred and a gift from God

Only God should take life away, 'In his hands is the life and every living thing and the breath of every human being' Job 12.10

Jesus showed in his teachings that all life should be valued