Haley Rising Mind Map/ Macronutrients

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1. Carbohydrates

1.1. Carbohydrates are also important when it comes to:

1.1.1. sparing protein catabolism

1.1.2. facilitating good cardiovascular health

1.1.3. digestive health

1.1.4. providing food with flavor

1.2. Carbohydrates are built from chains of monosaccharides.

1.3. Food sources for carbohydrates are as follows but not limited to:

1.3.1. Vegetables

1.3.2. Quinoa

1.3.3. Whole grains

1.4. Digestion for carbohydrates

1.4.1. 1. Digestion begins in the mouth when saliva is released from the salivary glands.

1.4.2. 2. When swallowing, the bolus of food passes through the throat and into the esophagus.

1.4.3. 3. When bolus reaches the stomach, it still churns and turns into a substance called chyme.

1.4.4. 4. The chyme then moves into the small intestine.

1.4.5. 5. When it has reached the duodenum, the pancreas will then release enzymes to help with digestion by breaking the ogliosaccharides and polysaccharides into smaller parts.

1.4.6. 6. From here the bokken down carbohydrates will go into the large intestine.

1.5. Carbohydrates and athletic performance

1.5.1. Foods that contain high amounts of healthy carbohydrates are ideal for athletic performance.

1.5.2. When energy is needed during exercise, glucose storing itself in the body can be turned into ATP.

1.5.3. High levels or carbohydrate intake are needed for an athlete to be able to perform at their best ability.

2. Proteins

2.1. Proteins form the major structural components of muscle, the brain, nervous system, blood, skin, and hair.

2.2. Proteins are composed on long chains of amino acids.

2.3. Food sources for protein are as follows:

2.3.1. Meat, Poultry, Eggs

2.3.2. Seafood

2.3.3. Legumes, Grains, Vegetables

2.3.4. Nuts and Seeds

2.3.5. Dairy Products

2.4. Digestion of Protein:

2.4.1. 1. Begins in the stomach with denaturation.

2.4.2. 2. When the body anticipates eating, the stomach releases the hormone gastrin.

2.4.3. 3. When gastrin is released, it stimulates the stomach to to release hydraulic acid.

2.4.4. 4. When acid is released in the stomach like that, it triggers the activation of pepsin. Pepsin breaks down the peptide bonds of the amino acid.

2.4.5. 5. The stomach churns the food, and it eventually turns to chyme.

2.4.6. 6. Then is released into the small intestine.

2.4.7. 7. Then the pancreas also releases proteolytic enzymes into the small intestine .

2.4.8. 8. Then all of this is passed through the blood stream.

2.4.9. 9. After being absorbed into the bloodstream, it is taken to the liver.

2.5. Proteins and Athletic performance

2.5.1. Important for endurance and resistance training exercises.

2.5.2. Meals should be eaten before, during, and after exercise that contain carbohydrates and protein in a 3:1 ratio.

2.5.3. When protein is eaten directly after exercise, it helps repair muscle.

3. Fats

3.1. With every gram of fat you intake, that is 9 calories.

3.2. Some fats are heart healthy.

3.3. Fats provide the body with energy when carbohydrates are not available.

3.4. Fats also help with insulation, protection of vital organs, protection of bones and many other functions.

3.5. Food sources for fats are as follows but not limited to:

3.5.1. Avacados

3.5.2. Cheese

3.5.3. Whole eggs

3.5.4. Nuts

3.6. Digestion of fats

3.6.1. 1. Begins in the mouth with release of lingual lipase.

3.6.2. 2. After swallowed, the fat and food move to the stomach.

3.6.3. 3. Here, gastric lipase helps break down and digest the fats even more. Mixing of the food also helps is break down further.

3.6.4. 4. When the food leaves the stomach, it becomes chyme.

3.6.5. 5. When chyme enters the small intestine, it releases CCK.

3.6.6. 6. The release of CCK causes the release of gastric inhibitory peptide.

3.6.7. 7. Then in the small intestine, bile acid emulsifies the lipids.

3.6.8. 8. After all of this takes place, then the broken down fats go to the liver.

3.7. Fats and Athletic performance

3.7.1. Athletes have been doing what is called fat loading, which his essentially eating a tone of fatty foods so it will turn into energy during athletic performance.