Understanding Learning Gap in Malaysia's Primary School Students

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Understanding Learning Gap in Malaysia's Primary School Students by Mind Map: Understanding Learning Gap in Malaysia's Primary School Students

1. RQ1: What causes learning gap among the primary school children?

1.1. Issues faced by teachers - Ineffective classroom instructions, inappropriate assessment technique, incompetency with the language of instruction. Issues faced by students - Lack of active engagement, different learning styles, learning deficiency of the previous level, lack of parental support.

1.1.1. Islam, Md & Siddik, Mohammad. (2020). Learning Gaps in Achieving Reading Skills in English of Grade 3: Causes and Remedies. Volume-11.

1.1.2. Instructor Characteristics and Actions - Instructional clarity, teacher power and compliance-gaining, instructor immediacy, instructor credibility, instructor use of humor, teacher self-disclosure, instructor verbal aggression, instructional feedback. Student Characteristics and Attitudes - Cultural values and human development, social identity, motivation to learn, communication apprehension and public speaking instruction, social perspectives on student learning. Paul Witt. (2016). Communication and Learning. De Gruyter Mouton.

1.1.3. Learning Styles - Myers-Briggs' Model (2007) - Dunn and Dunn's (1992) model - McCarthy's Model - Fleming and Baume's VARK Model (2006) Derakhshan, A., & Shakki, F. (2018). An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Iranian EFL High- and Low-Proficient Learners and Their Learning Styles. SAGE Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018809408

1.2. Gender differences influencing achievement in (STEM) subjects - Teachers' expectations (biases): Stereotype against girls in cognitive ability. Stereotype against boys in learning behaviors. - Gendered patterns of problem-solving techniques: Boys like to use bolder strategies such as backwards reasoning whereas girls are more likely to use familiar, procedural strategies. This may cause drawbacks in the development of girls' mathematical confidence and achievement when flexible problem-solving approaches are required.

1.2.1. Cimpian, J. R., Lubienski, S. T., Timmer, J. D., Makowski, M. B., & Miller, E. K. (2016). Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors Across Two ECLS-K Cohorts. AERA Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858416673617

1.3. Covid-19 pandemic crisis brings new urgency to the challenges of equity and learner resilience. - Students whose parents lack proficiency in the language of instruction face challenges due to remote learning. - Students in remote locations face challenges with less reliable digital infrastructure. - Students from low socio-economic background live in a home which is less conducive to learning, with lower access to digital tools and greater vulnerability to health and financial impacts of the pandemic.

1.3.1. OECD (2020), Lessons for Education from COVID-19: A Policy Maker’s Handbook for More Resilient Systems, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/0a530888-en.

2. RQ2: What are the possible ways to minimize learning gaps among primary school children?

2.1. 1. Improve classroom instructions. 2. Promote peer assistance learning. 3. Differentiated Assessment. 4. Motivate & support students 5. Parental engagement in learning. 6. Recruit subject-based teachers. 7. Promote meaningful learning

2.1.1. Islam, Md & Siddik, Mohammad. (2020). Learning Gaps in Achieving Reading Skills in English of Grade 3: Causes and Remedies. Volume-11.

2.1.2. Family Learning - Home-school partnership: Teachers recognizing family needs and provide necessary learning support. - The awareness of physical space and logistical arrangement affect productivity. - Parent-child partnership: Development of metacognitive learning and skill support learning. - Learning to learn with 5R's: Readiness, Resourcefulness, Responsibility, Resilience, Reflection Wall, K., Burns, H., & Llewellyn, A. (2017). Mind the Gap: An exploratory investigation of a family learning initiative to develop metacognitive awareness. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(2), 115–129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718X15579744

2.1.3. Learning design in classroom practice (CCAF model) Context: Determine the framework and conditions. Challenge: A stimulus to action within the context. Activity: A physical response to the challenge. Feedback: A reflection of the effectiveness of the learner's action Allen, M. (2016). Guide to e-Learning: Building Interactive, Fun, and Effective Learning Programs for Any Company

2.1.4. Foster Real-World Learning. Step 1: Make meaning central to student work Step 2: Contextualize the curriculum Step 3: Create space to learn. Step 4: Connect student work to the community Step 5: Follow the student leaders Step 6: Reenvision feedback and evaluation Eric Hardie. (2019). The Relevant Classroom : Six Steps to Foster Real-World Learning. ASCD.

2.1.5. Differentiated Assessment to improve learning - Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment - Assessment as Learning Self-assessment Wanner, T., & Palmer, E. (2018). Formative self-and peer assessment for improved student learning: the crucial factors of design, teacher participation and feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43, 1032 - 1047.

2.2. OECD education systems intiative to address learning gaps during Covid-19 - Personalized learning interventions. - Additional or specialized instruction for certain students. - Additional resources based on student needs.

2.2.1. OECD (2020), Lessons for Education from COVID-19: A Policy Maker’s Handbook for More Resilient Systems, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/0a530888-en.

2.3. Integrating social-emotional learning Framework.

2.3.1. Public Spirit - Respect for others, courage, ethical responsibility, civic responsibility, social justice, service learning, leadership

2.3.2. Identity and Agency - Strength recognition, self-confidence, self-efficacy, growth mindset, perseverance and grit, resiliency

2.3.3. Social Skills - Prosocial skills, sharing, teamwork, relationship building, communication, empathy, relationship repair

2.3.4. Emotional Regulation - Identifying emotions, emotional self-perception, impulse control, delaying gratification, stress management, coping

2.3.5. Cognitive Regulation - Metacognition, attention, goal setting, recognizing & resolving problems, help seeking, decision making, organizational skills

2.3.6. Nancy Frey, Douglas Fisher, & Dominique Smith. (2019). All Learning Is Social and Emotional : Helping Students Develop Essential Skills for the Classroom and Beyond. ASCD.

3. Definition of Learning Gap: Relative performance of individual students on what a student has actually learned and what he or she was expected to learn at a particular age or grade level.

3.1. Six Types of Learning Gap

3.1.1. 1) Knowledge Gaps - Students don't have the right information or enough information to achieve the learning outcome. Teachers can educate students with strategies such as recall prior knowledge and metacognition to help support memory encoding and retrieval.

3.1.2. 2) Skill Gaps - Students know the information, but have not had sufficient practice to be able to perform successfully. Teachers educate students about practice and feedback. Pomote engagement by using structured goals and real accomplishments.

3.1.3. 3) Motivational Gaps - Students know what to do but choose not to do. Teachers can help students to develop motivation to learn and motivation to do. Learners need to feel a sense of self-efficacy with the new challenge or skill.

3.1.4. 4) Habit Gaps - Students are required to think or learn in a way that they are not used to which involves undoing old learning habits and practices. Habits formation requires practice and feedback. Teachers can help students to identify the triggers and having a plan to respond to triggers.

3.1.5. 5) Environmental Gaps - Students' learning do not receive enough support from the environment. Teachers are to encourage informal learning. Help learners to look at a process and explores possibilities to simply it.

3.1.6. 6) Communication Gaps - Students are given unclear, insufficient directions or confusing objectives for the activities they are being presented with. Teachers may use interviews, surveys, checklists and feedback to reflect on own practice.

3.1.7. Dirksen, J. (2016). Design for how people learn.