Lecture - WEEK 2

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Lecture - WEEK 2 by Mind Map: Lecture - WEEK 2

1. Rostow suggests that capitalism allows countries to be independent and create their own resources.

2. Bring terms to class to discuss, don't have to look up ourselves.

3. First essay question builds on this weeks readings.

4. Term: endogamous - pertains to and comes from "the inside". exogenous - pertains to and comes from "the outside".

5. Term: teleology

5.1. The faulty logic that one event with lead to the next. That interventions will always lead to the same result. Rostow - quintessential teleological argument.

5.2. Linear progress

5.3. E.g. Human Development Index is somewhat teleogical, one country stacked against the other.

6. Rostow pretty much wrote the manifesto on teleogical development.

7. Term: Hegemony

7.1. Coming to accept dominant ideas, e.g. from the state

7.2. Naturalized ideas

8. Term: Modernity

8.1. Social existence that is new

9. Term: Agency

9.1. Operating as you wish in society

10. Colonialisam and Modernity

10.1. Colonialism is difficult to separate from development . Development loves progress based ideologies.

10.2. Who is the progress going to? Colonialism (selfish) vs Development (for whom?)

11. Defining Colonialism

11.1. The policy of a nation seeking to retain its authority over other peoples or territories

11.1.1. The political control of peoples and territories by foreign states

11.2. The Colonial Project

11.2.1. Underpinning ideologies

11.2.1.1. Universalism

11.2.1.2. Cultural imperialism

11.2.1.3. Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer)

11.2.1.4. Ethnocentrism

11.2.2. Economy -> production -> independence

11.3. Presumptions of Colonialism

11.3.1. Colonialism based on premise that populations around the world existed within a linear, progression based model of societal development.

11.3.2. Cultural difference seen as 'progress' (or lack thereof)

11.3.2.1. Universalism idea of cultural progress seen as invitation to intervene (white man's burden)

11.3.3. colonised states were portrayed as being "closer to nature" vs "enlightened" countries

11.4. Colonialism and Education

11.4.1. Kant (1784) definition of enlightenment

11.4.2. Kant and others who led colonising missions, education was a central component of "transforming" and "preparing" societies so they would be "capable" of progressing in order to be in a "civilised" society

11.4.3. Education was seen as the pathway for transcending "traditonal" social formations

11.5. Colonialism and Humanitarianism

11.5.1. King Leopold used extreme violence, however was referred to as a humanitarian

11.5.1.1. Violence was a colonial way to teach

11.6. Colonialism and Development: 1

11.6.1. Development is a natural part of the colonial project

11.6.1.1. A mixture of environmental determinism and social Darwinism used to explain why poor countries were poor

11.6.2. Development used to socially engineering

11.6.2.1. Social engineering, making particular types of transformations, in these theories the society isn't able to make internal change independently.

11.7. Colonialism and Resources

11.7.1. Colonialism ofte nwent in and extracted resources from the community and moved it offshore.

11.8. Defining thought of colonialism is that pre-colonial societies were outside the global economy - which was false.

11.8.1. colonial thought that there is only one way to be a "state", hegemony of capitalism

12. Capitalism

12.1. Definition: Production of goods and services for market exchange to make profit

12.2. Definition: Founded of a definitive social (class) relation between who own the means of production and those who own the labour power

12.3. So much of develeopment is measured in economic term

13. Capitalism and Colonialism

13.1. Capitalism was initiated in pre-capitalist societies of Latin America, Asia and Africa during colonial rule.

13.2. Colonial division of labour

13.2.1. manufacturing is done elsewhere to primary product

13.2.1.1. reselling goods to colonial economies

13.2.1.2. leads to declline in local industires, loss of land to commercial agriculture, needs for imports in primary product led to work in "cash cropping"

14. Colonialism unlocks a Devleopment Puzzle

14.1. Colonial division of labour created interdependence between states and regions - underpinning inequalities in this century

14.2. The unequal world we live in today is no a natural progression, it is relational and historically contingent

14.3. DEVELOPMENT IS NOT AN ISOLATED NATIONAL ACTIVITY

14.4. Aid is given as though it is helping the "global south" but the "global north has relied on the global south.

15. Post War Era

15.1. First time third and first world terminology used

15.1.1. Rapid growth in the US as less domestically effected by world world

15.2. The Marshall Plan TERM

15.2.1. Aid to European states and Japan

15.2.2. Restores trade, price stability and expand production

15.2.3. Dollar credits allowed countries to purchase american goods - which integrated the countries economies

15.2.4. Triangular trade

15.2.4.1. US used resources from European colonies to manufacture goods and money from these resources was deposited into European accounts

15.2.5. Video Marshall Plan

15.2.5.1. US govt video, similar to propaganda

15.2.6. Was used as a bargaining chip with other countries, a favour to be returned.

15.2.7. Based on lineal development theory

15.2.8. The US is taking the opportunity to "transform" Europe into the image the US wants to see.

15.3. TERM: Multilateralism, process of organizing relations between groups of three or more states. Beyond that basic quantitative aspect, multilateralism is generally considered to comprise certain qualitative elements or principles that shape the character of the arrangement or institution.

15.4. 1945 Bretton Woods Agreement

15.4.1. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) - The World Bank

15.4.1.1. 27/44 countries part of the third world, however there is first world bias from dominance from the US and Europe

15.4.1.2. Beneficial that currencies do not change too much and currencies are monitored

15.4.2. International Money Fund: Source of short term credit where needed to stabilize national currency exchanges

15.4.3. "revitalize international trade"

15.4.4. "stabilises national finances"

15.4.5. Third World earns foreign currency through buying and selling foreign goods

15.4.6. Key sentiments of the development project:

15.4.6.1. Multinational universilism

15.4.6.2. Viewing natural bounty of resources as unlimited

15.4.6.3. Liberal belief in freedom of opportunity as the key to political development

15.4.6.4. Human satisfaction linked to rising living standards

15.4.7. Quote from Bretton Woods conference president mentions "freedom of opportunity", onus is on the individual. Failure is a failure of the individual.

15.4.8. IF WHAT YOU HAVE AT THE END OF THE DAY IS OPPORTUNITY ONLY IF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE DECIMATED THAN IT IS NOT AGENCY

16. Term: Modernisation Theory

16.1. economic, social and political development that is expected to lead to development of the industrialized societies

16.2. West expects that knowledge will lead to their idea of progress and subsequently improve human life.

16.2.1. What counts as the right kind of knowledge?

16.3. Key idea: underdeveloped are "behind" and will eventually "catch up"

16.4. Linear and teleological development

16.5. CHALLENGE THE IDEA THAT DEVELOPMENT HAS TO REPLACE TRADITIONAL CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS

17. Rostow (reading)

17.1. hallmark statement of modernisation theory

17.2. prominent political influencer

17.3. believes development is linear

17.4. His warning that the road to development may take ages and the extent of "treading water" will significant

17.4.1. Could be used as a tool for societies not to push back "be patient" "trust"

17.4.1.1. Pacifies societies

17.5. Unclear what happens to the world when every society reaches the state of 'age of mass consumption'

18. Discourse: MOST IMPORTANT TO PAY ATTENTION TO IN THE CONTEXT OF ANALYSING DEVLEOPMENT

18.1. HOW IS DEVELOPMENT UNDERSTOOD

18.2. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS

18.3. READ DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AND PULL THEM APART

18.4. HOW DO PEOPLE TALK ABOUT THE WORLD AROUND THEM

18.5. A framework for understanding speech and knowledge production

18.6. Discourse analysis allows us to identify biases (subjective realities) within a text, we infer how a particular theme or ideology may underpin the analysis and arguments presented