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GENERAL LINGUISTICS by Mind Map: GENERAL LINGUISTICS

1. PHONES

1.1. DEFINITION

1.1.1. represented by symbols of the (IPA)

1.1.2. phonetic segment

1.1.3. speech sounds that we hear and produce

1.1.4. appear in square brackets

1.2. EXAMPLES

1.2.1. The word spin consists in 4 phones: [s], [p], [ɪ] and [n]

1.2.2. The word house consists in 5 phones: [h], [o], [u], [s] and [e]

1.2.3. The word pen consists in 3 phones: [p], [e], and [n]

1.2.4. The word pillow consists in 6 phones: [p], [i], [l], [l], [o] and [w]

1.2.5. The word bird consists in 4 phones: [b], [i], [r], and [d]

2. PHONEMES

2.1. DEFINITION

2.1.1. mental abstract representation of a speech sound

2.1.2. goes between slashes

2.1.3. it only exist in our minds

2.2. EXAMPLES

2.2.1. /f/ fish and phone

2.2.2. /g/ go and egg

2.2.3. /l/ leaf and dill

2.2.4. /p/ pink and pepper

2.2.5. /v/ violin and give

2.2.6. /i/ bit and beet

3. ALLOPHONE

3.1. DEFINITION

3.1.1. phonetic realisation of a phoneme

3.1.2. depends on the environment

3.1.3. there are two types

3.1.3.1. free-variation allophones

3.1.3.2. complementary allophones

3.1.4. different versions of the same sound

3.2. EXAMPLES

3.2.1. /p/ as in spin where p is an unaspirated sound and pin where p is aspirated

3.2.2. /t/ where t in stop is unaspirated and the t in top has an aspirated sound

3.2.3. /I/ in the words pill with and aspiration sound in the I and the word bill with and unaspiration sound in the I

3.2.4. /n/ in lane and language are allophones of the same sound

3.2.5. /i/ sit and sing which are phonetically distinct and phonologically the same

4. MINIMAL PAIRS

4.1. DEFINITION

4.1.1. two words that vary just by one sound (differ un aspiration)

4.2. EXAMPLES

4.2.1. pit and bit

4.2.2. cap and gap

4.2.3. back and bag

4.2.4. backed and bagged

4.2.5. rapid and rabid

5. PRONUNCIATION OF MORPHEMES

5.1. DEFINITION

5.1.1. the phonological environment needs to be distinguish

5.1.2. depends on the context

5.2. EXAMPLES

5.2.1. sign is pronounced [sãɪn]

5.2.2. bead is pronounced [bid]

5.2.3. beat is pronounced [bit]

5.2.4. love is pronounced [lʌv]

5.2.5. laugh is pronounced [læf]

6. REFERENCES

6.1. Dagalea, C. R. (s. f.). Phonology and pronunciation of morphemes ms. ladjagais. Slideshare. Recuperado 10 de agosto de 2021, de Phonology and pronunciation of morphemes ms. ladjagais Phonemes Examples. (s. f.). Copyright 2005-, softschools.com. Recuperado 10 de agosto de 2021, de https://www.softschools.com/examples/grammar/phonemes_examples/643/ Access denied | test-english.com used Cloudflare to restrict access. (s. f.). Test-English. Recuperado 10 de agosto de 2021, de https://test-english.com/grammar-points/b1-b2/reporting-verbs/ 7511 Phonology Homework walkthrough. (2020, 1 octubre). [Vídeo]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJLlxN6DZz8 Phonetics (pt. 1). (2014, 11 septiembre). [Vídeo]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mOd3iDQLnKE