History of Graphic Design

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History of Graphic Design by Mind Map: History of Graphic Design

1. Cave Paintings

1.1. Reasons for images

1.1.1. Story telling

1.1.2. Instructions on hunting tactics

1.1.3. Magical or religious reasons

1.2. Materials

1.2.1. Paint Water Blood Plant Juice Soil Charcoal

1.2.2. Brushes Sticks Stones Animal hair leaves

1.3. Locations

1.3.1. Altamira, Spain Oldest site

1.3.2. Lasaux, France Most famous site

1.3.3. Chauvet Pont D'arc Known for 3D design and scrapings

2. Cuneiform

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. Theocratic

2.1.2. Skilled Pottery Artists

2.1.3. Music was valuable

2.1.4. Lived in Fertile Crescent Year around agriculture Invaded by Akkadians

2.2. Materials

2.2.1. Clay tablet

2.2.2. Wedge shaped weed stylus

2.3. First written language

2.4. Uses

2.4.1. Keep track of transactions

3. Hieroglyphics

3.1. Orgin

3.1.1. Likely Cuneiform

3.1.2. Combination of logo graphic and alphabetic elements

3.2. Egyptians

3.2.1. Priests and Priestesses were literate Wrote Books of Dead Created The Rosetta Stone Contained Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek

3.3. Uses

3.3.1. Religion

3.3.2. Battle communication

3.3.3. Government

3.4. Materials

3.4.1. Papyrus Dried, layered, and flattened reeds

4. Phoencians

4.1. Orgin

4.1.1. Variation of Hieroglyphics

4.1.2. Ties with Cuneiform

4.1.3. Independent language

4.2. Successes

4.2.1. One sign represents a spoken sound

4.2.2. Writing from right to left (in straight lines)

4.2.3. Easily adaptable to other languages

4.2.4. Disintegrated class divisions

4.3. Greek adaptations

4.3.1. Created vowels Latin Alphabet

4.3.2. Two writing styles Rigid and formal quick and informal

4.3.3. Serifs an aesthetic finishing-off hook

4.3.4. baselines

4.4. Uses

4.4.1. Trade

4.4.2. Communication

5. The Codex

5.1. Orgin

5.1.1. Scrolls of Papyrus

5.1.2. Sequential reading

5.2. Reasons for Change

5.2.1. Scrolls are cumbersome

5.2.2. A Codex is easy to refrence, compact, and sturdy

5.2.3. Random Access

5.3. Materials

5.3.1. Parchment Skin of animals was cleaned Hide soaked in water, calcium, flour, and salt

5.3.2. Vellum Same process as parchment, but with young calves skin

5.3.3. Quills Turkey, geese, and Crow feathers

5.4. Uses

5.4.1. Bibles and Scripture

5.4.2. Illuminated manuscripts

6. Printing Press

6.1. Notable Persons

6.1.1. Johannes Gutenberg Inventor of Printing Press

6.1.2. Ts'ai Lun developed paper

6.1.3. John Fust Investor

6.2. Impact

6.2.1. Perfected script

6.2.2. rapid book printing

6.2.3. Increase literacy

6.2.4. Information shared lead to Renaissance

6.3. Materials

6.3.1. Movable Type made of a lead, tin, and antimony alloy

6.3.2. matrix hard metal punch that is hammered into a softer copper bar

6.3.3. oil-based ink

6.4. Current printing process

6.4.1. Relief Printing

6.4.2. Intaglio

6.4.3. Porous

6.4.4. Lithography

7. Linotype

7.1. Notable Persons

7.1.1. Clephane Stenographer who encouraged creation of typewriter

7.1.2. Christopher Sholes Creates commercial typewriter

7.1.3. Ottmar Mergenthaler Creates Linotype

7.2. Parts

7.2.1. Keys White, blue, and black

7.2.2. matrix mold for letter forms

7.2.3. slug The assembled line of type

7.2.4. space band creates justified text

8. Photography

8.1. History

8.1.1. Camera Obscura "Dark Chamber"to view light

8.1.2. Daguerreotype Daguerre Practical Photo process

8.1.3. Calotype William Fox Image exposed to create a paper negative fuzzier, but duplicates possible

8.1.4. Wet Plate Process Archer Exposed for three seconds onto collodion glass plates had to be exposed while still wet

8.1.5. Dry Plate Process Richard Madox glass plates coated with gelatin prevented drying

8.1.6. Eastman modification Eastman uses roll film to replace glass use by general public

8.1.7. Color Photography James Clerk Maxwell

8.1.8. Instant Photography Edwin Land

8.1.9. zoopraxiscope Muybridge

9. Computers

9.1. People

9.1.1. Konrad Zuse First Freely programmable Computer

9.1.2. Howard Riken and Grace Hopper MARK Navy

9.1.3. John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly UNIVAC Commercial computer

9.1.4. Douglas Engelbart Computer mouse

9.1.5. Robert Metcalfe ethernet

9.2. Companies

9.2.1. IBM Fortram: high level programming language IBM701 EDP Floppy Disk

9.2.2. Intel Intel 4004: Single chip microprocessor

9.2.3. Xerox GUI: Graphical User Interface

9.2.4. Microsoft PC: Personal Computer MS-DOS WIndows Operating System

9.2.5. Apple Apple Lisa: has GUI Macintosh