Copy of Copy of History of Visual Communications

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1. Cuneiform and the Sumerians

1.1. The Sumerians

1.1.1. Theocratic

1.1.2. Skilled Artists

1.1.3. Loved Music

1.2. Sumer Region

1.2.1. In Southern Iraq

1.2.2. Fertile ground and streams

1.2.3. Great for farming

1.2.4. cradle of civilzation Cuneiform was created here.

1.2.5. Later invaded by Akkadians because of the desirable land.

1.3. Cuneiform

1.3.1. Made to help track business transactions

1.3.2. Written on clay tablets

1.3.3. Written with a shaped wooden stylus.

1.3.4. Began as a series of photographs

1.3.5. evolved and characters grew more abstract.

2. Cave Paintings

2.1. cave paintings

2.1.1. Beautiful detailed colored representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings.

2.1.2. Made to tell stories

2.1.3. Made for instructional visual aid to help with hunting techniques

2.1.4. For Magical or religious reasons.

2.1.5. First form of Graphic Communications.

2.2. Famous caves

2.2.1. The most famous cave painting site is Lascaux in France Had to be closed because carbon dioxide emited by tourists was damaging the paintings The French government created the Lascaux II to Satisfy public interest. It was a copy of the original.

2.2.2. The Altmira cave is in Spain. The paintings in it are made out of red clay.

2.2.3. Chauvet Point d'ARC is the Oldest known cave painting site.

3. Hieroglyphics

3.1. Hieroglyphics

3.1.1. Cummunicated info about religion and government.

3.1.2. Made of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.1.3. influenced by cuneiform

3.2. Logogram

3.2.1. A visual symbol that represents an idea or object

3.3. Ancient Egyptians

3.3.1. Believed it was important to write about religion and government

3.3.2. Told stories with Hieroglyphics

3.3.3. Military leaders were scribes so they could communicate during battle. Priests were scribes so they could read and write instructions on temple walls.

3.3.4. Invented papyrus (a form of paper) by using a substrate made from reeds native to Egypt.

3.4. Rosetta Stone

3.4.1. Found when Napoleon Bonaparte. the Emperor of France, invaded Egypt in 1798.

3.4.2. The stone was engraved with three languages: Egyptian hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek.

3.4.3. Jean Francois Champollion Finally deciphered the stone when he was able to match up the Hieroglyphic symbols with the Greek nae of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses

4. Phonetic Alphabet

4.1. Creation ideas of Alphabet

4.1.1. Direct variation of Hieroglyphics

4.1.2. Has ties with Cunieform

4.1.3. An independent creation

4.2. the Alphabet technical

4.2.1. One sign represents one spoken sound.

4.2.2. All letters start with consonants.

4.2.3. Very successful because it was easier to learn than Cuneiform and could be used in multiple different languages.

4.2.4. It was the world's first widespread script.

4.3. Phonetic alphabet history

4.3.1. Separated higher class from lower class.

4.3.2. Greek adapted its' letter forms Gave rise to many other alphabets. It was the first true alphabet.

4.3.3. Roman Alphabet is the most widely used alphabetic system today. It to adopted parts of the phonetic alphabet Made a rigid formal script for important manuscripts Made a quicker informal script for letters and routine writing.

4.4. Writing techniques

4.4.1. Serif- letters with hooks on the tips of them originated from carving words into stone. It became very aesthetic and made the script look better.

4.4.2. Baseline- The line upon which most letters sit. Made writing neater and improved writing aesthetics.

4.4.3. Descenders extend under the baseline.

5. Codex and illuminated manuscript

5.1. The codex

5.1.1. It replaced the scroll because of its compactness, sturdiness, and ease of reference.

5.1.2. Adopted by Christianity for the Bible.

5.1.3. It was basically a modern day book.

5.1.4. It is made from parchment Parchment is made from animal skin stripped of hair and flattened out. It replaced Papyrus because it was more durable.

5.2. Illuminated Manuscipt

5.2.1. It Is a decorated manuscript with illustrations, borders and ornamentation on each page of text Made using a quill- made from turkeys and crows.

5.2.2. Mainly used for religious texts because of the laborious amount of work it took to make them.

5.2.3. They mainly declined because of the printing press.

6. Gutenberg Press

6.1. Johannes Gutenberg

6.1.1. Invented modern book printing.

6.1.2. Invented the printing press Machine that rolls ink over a raised surface of moveable hand-set letters held within a wooden frame.

6.1.3. Father worked as a goldsmith

6.1.4. He loved to read Motivated him to invent the press.

6.1.5. Also credited with the invention of oil-based ink.

6.2. Gutenberg press

6.2.1. Developed the technology of being able to print movable type.

6.2.2. Worlds first type of moveable type was made of wood. Made in china.

6.2.3. used metal type used metal type because it could melt at low temperatures and was more durable in the press. Made using a Matrix which holds the molten metal in place during molding.

6.2.4. First full printed book was bible.

6.2.5. Made printing cheaper, more accessible, perfected script, grew economies, made people more literate, increased economies, and art and science began to fourish.

6.3. Main types of printing

6.3.1. Relief Printing

6.3.2. Intaglio

6.3.3. Porous

6.3.4. Lithography.

7. Linotype Machine

7.1. Newspaper industry

7.1.1. The linotype machine made it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis.

7.2. Invented by Clephane

7.2.1. He was looking for an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies.

7.2.2. He approached Ottmar Mergenthaler to help with their typesetting machine. He suggested casting type from a metal matrix versus papier-mache.

7.3. Christopher Sholes invented the only typewriter that became commercially successful.

7.3.1. He realized that Stenographers would be the first and most important users of the typewriter.

7.3.2. His type writer was tested by Clephane.

7.4. Used a matrix to make molds for letter forms.

7.5. The slug is the assembled line of type, cast as a single piece.

7.6. used a set of wedges to justify the text.

7.7. First installed in the Printing office of the New York Tribune in July 1886.

7.8. It's keyboard

7.8.1. A 90 charactor keyboard

7.8.2. black keys on the left were for lowercase letters

7.8.3. White keys on the right were for uppercase letters

7.8.4. blue keys in the center were for punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces.

8. History of Photography

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. 4th century one was just used to observe light

8.1.2. It is and optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.3. in the 1500s, it was used in a darkened room with a convex lese inserted into one wall

8.1.4. in the 17th and 18th centuries, it shrunk to the size of a portable box and the immage was reflected onto ground glass

8.2. Photography development

8.2.1. The name was made by Sir john Hershel, it was derived from the Greek terms for light and writing.

8.2.2. The firs successful photograph was made in 1827 by Joseph niepce

8.3. Practical photography

8.3.1. Made by Louis Daquerre. he named the process daguerreotype. It was done by a light sensitive metal sheet was exposed to an image which created a direct positive image using only half an hour.

8.3.2. The calotype process Made by William Fox Talbot. The subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative It allowed images to be duplicate

8.3.3. Wet collodian process Made with glass plates coated with collodian. the plates had to be exposed and developed immediately while the plates were still wet. Produced a sharper image

8.3.4. Dry plate process Developed by Richard Maddox used gelatin instead of glass as a basis for the phtotgraphic plate Gelatin is a colorless, water soluble, glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue.

8.4. Influenced current photography

8.4.1. Eastman patented a film that was rolled up and quick and easy to use. It made Photography open to the public. Established the Eastman Kodak Company IN 1900 he made the brownie camera as the first widespread camera availabel to the public.

8.4.2. Color Photography James Clerk Maxwell took the first color photograph

8.4.3. Instant Photography Patented by Edwin Land. It was a one step process for developing and printing photographs.

8.4.4. Motion Photography Made by muybridge He was later hired to find out if all four of a horse's hooves are off the ground at the same time during a gallop using motion photography. invented the zoopraxiscope. It projected images in succesive phases of motion


9.1. Early computers

9.1.1. Konrad Zuse invented the first freely programmable computer

9.1.2. Howard Aiken And Grace Hopper designed the mark series of comuters They were made for the u.s. Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.1.3. The first commercial computer was the Univac It was designed by John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly Univac stood for Univeral automatic computer

9.2. Early computer development

9.2.1. Ibm (international Business Machines) introduced the IBM701

9.2.2. The first high level programming language was Fortran which stood for The IBM Mathematical Programming Language

9.2.3. The first computer game ever was SPACEWAR

9.2.4. The first computer mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart. It was called a computer mouse because the wire connecting it to a computer made it resemble a mouse.

9.2.5. The first internet was called arpanet It was made to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

9.3. Late computer development

9.3.1. The intel 4004 was the first single-chip microprocessor. It was produced by INTEL

9.3.2. The first memory disk was the floppy disk. It was produced by IBM

9.3.3. The first Ethernet was developed y Robert Metcalfe and Xerox

9.3.4. Bill gates and Microsoft introduced Md-dos. The first widespread operating system.

9.3.5. Apple introduced Lisa in 1983. It was the first computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) xerox had however developed this in the 1970s

9.3.6. In 1984 apple introduced the apple Macintosh Computer. Microsoft introduced the Windows operating system in response to this.

9.4. Computers of the 70s

9.4.1. Scelbi MArk-8

9.4.2. Altair

9.4.3. IBM 5100

9.4.4. Apple 1 and 2

9.4.5. Trs 80

9.4.6. Comodore PT