Globalization

Globalization

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Globalization by Mind Map: Globalization

1. It prioritizes proposals from the political margins

2. Pluriverse

2.1. It comes with post-development

3. With the own dynamics of globalization, the understanding of space has changed

4. It implies that development is an slogan used by capital to facilitate the implementation of neocolonial enterprise

5. South Global

5.1. Development

5.1.1. History of colonialism, neo-imperialism, differential economic and social.

5.1.1.1. Access to resources

5.1.1.2. Life expectancy

5.1.1.3. Inequalities

5.1.2. Name patterns of wealth, privilege, and development across broad regions

5.1.2.1. Fragment traditions, language, culture

5.2. Cold War divisions

5.2.1. Refers broadly to the regions of Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania

5.2.1.1. Third World

5.2.1.1.1. Periphery

5.2.1.1.2. Core-periphery

5.2.2. Basic human dignity, before human rights

5.2.2.1. Universal Human dignity

5.2.2.1.1. Not only implied for the West

6. It stops being understood as a homogeneous and delimited space that gathers a consistent community

6.1. It starts being understood as articulated moments in network of social relations.

6.1.1. It is the product of interrelations and connections

7. XVI & XVII Century

7.1. First planetary network of commerce

8. Knowledge (when we talk about "World History" and everything is about Europe or US).

9. Historical Approaches

9.1. Neoliberalism

9.1.1. 1980 - Its advent

9.1.1.1. Digital technology of communication

9.1.1.1.1. Information travels across the world

9.2. Cold War

9.2.1. End

9.2.1.1. The divided world turns into one again

9.2.1.1.1. Division by developed and underdeveloped countries

9.3. Industrial Revolution

9.3.1. Template for global economy is settled

9.4. Colonialism

9.4.1. Spanish and British empire

9.4.1.1. Implied the first planetary networks of commerce

9.5. Modernity

9.5.1. Globalization's uneven power foundations

10. Interconnections at planetary level

10.1. These are uneven relationships that makes the wealthy richer and the poor even poorer. However, it is necessary to say that the first ones are only a few.

11. Flows and connections

11.1. Capital, labour, commodities, humans, knowledge, information, movement, etc.

11.1.1. Individuals are placed in different ways in relation to these flows and interconnections

12. Power geomtetry

13. It is not static. It is always changing.

14. Space

15. Time

15.1. The undersanding of it has changed too

15.1.1. Things and processes have speeded up

16. Time-space compression

16.1. Movements, relationships and communication across space and time

16.2. Geographical stretching out and spreading of social relations

16.3. It occurs as a result of the appearance of innovations that condense and shorten spatial and temporal distances

17. Rooted in Marx´s idea of the "annihilation of time by space"

18. To go deeper in globalisation...

19. Global chains of production

19.1. It refers to the interconnected and globalized processes of production

19.1.1. An example is the production of a t-shirt: while the cotton is harvested in India, the manufacture can be done in Indonesia and the final product can be sold in Italy

19.1.1.1. However, production is the key process to explain the growing environmental problems in today's globalisation of production.

19.1.1.2. In developing countries, environmental degradation occurs as a direct result of demand for production from advanced developed countries.

19.1.1.2.1. Weak environmental regulations

19.1.1.2.2. Very low wage labor

19.1.1.3. To increase profits in the capitalist world economy, there has been an increasing amount of resource extraction and toxic additions to the environment.

20. Financialization and the stock market

20.1. What is finance?

20.1.1. Making money out of debt and equity

20.2. What is economy?

20.2.1. The way that the society distributed the resources

20.3. Create the imaginary value

20.3.1. Based on expectation

20.4. CRISIS

20.4.1. Increased the values

20.5. Neoliberalism

20.5.1. Transforms international debt as a commodity

20.5.2. It puts higher taxes

20.5.3. Puts the debt in little pieces in the stock market, and the values

20.6. Cultural and epistemic dimensions

20.6.1. Micro-finance

20.6.1.1. The current trend in financing

20.6.1.2. E.g: Datacredito, credit card, GDP

20.7. Care economy

20.7.1. Women produce 15% that GDP

20.7.1.1. Care work

20.7.1.1.1. Produces a lot of work

20.7.1.2. E.g Cleaning, care the children, go to pay services

21. Post-development

21.1. It goes beyond development

21.1.1. Beyond is not after

21.1.2. It is not a linear process

21.2. It entails the idea that development is radically inhospitable

22. Development

22.1. Modernity

23. It has two faces, like a coin

24. FACE 1--> Development

24.1. It has been seen as an ideological tool.

24.2. Although indicators suggest the development is successful, some aspects show the opposite

24.2.1. Largest ecological crisis.

24.2.2. The hyperindividualisation that transforms subjects -human beings- into consumers.

24.2.3. Largest inequality in the history of capitalism.

24.2.4. An universalist vision of needs and wellbeing.

25. FACE 2--> Coloniality

25.1. It is about control.

25.1.1. It connects to the matrix of power

25.2. Imposes a universal vision of how a good life should be, excluding other ways of being in the world.

25.3. It provides the material substrate for modernity

25.3.1. Material conditions are fundamental in order to reach certaing things

25.3.1.1. E.g. Without the petroleum of the Middle East, the U.S would not be able to fulfill its energy demand.

26. In this era, people stop being individuals and begin to belong to a universal community. But, how much of this is true?

27. To acknowledge it, it is important to deconstruct ourselves

28. This requires to shift our point of enunciation

28.1. This includes the fact of listening to who the story has made invisible or has put in second place.

28.2. We need to work under the premise that they too have been part of the contemporaneity and listening in their own terms.

28.3. It is important recognising those in the West who are also working for emancipation in a decolonial way.

28.4. Overcoming the "us" and "them".

29. Fighting for create a new kind of globalisation

30. Both transform spatial heterogeneity into temporal sequences

31. Both are intrinsically related

32. Development is undertood as the last step in a linear temporal line

32.1. It transforms spatial heterogenity into temporal sequences

32.2. It assumes that there is only one temporal line

32.3. It proposes that undeveloped countries "need" to catch up modern and developed countries in order to succeed.

32.4. It differenciates between undeveloped and developed countries.

33. Modernity and coloniality are the same ontological entity

33.1. They cannot be separated

34. It is an alternative to the devastating consequences of development

34.1. It looks for alternatives in the margins, outside hegemonic groups

34.2. It listens the alternatives given by people historically oppresed and silent by the dynamics of development

34.2.1. E. g. Peasants, LGBTIQ+, indigeneous people.

34.3. It distances itself from dynamics of development such as the priorization of the global over the local and modernity, capitalism, state domination, and masculinist values.

35. It goes along the Zapatista belief of creating "un mundo dónde quepan muchos mundos"

35.1. It emphasizes the fact that the world is heterogeneous

36. It proposes transformative initiatives and alternatives to the currently dominant processes of development

37. E.g. Food sovereignty, chinese religions, green economies, etc.

38. While it might seem to be advantageous, it actually entails critical problems

38.1. Unregulated practices

38.1.1. Under paid jobs, unhealthy working conditions, extremely long working hours

38.2. Environmental harashing practices

38.2.1. Use of pesticides, killing of animals or dispossession of land

38.3. It is in risk of being produced by forced labor

38.3.1. Slavery in supply chain

38.3.1.1. Half of the modern slaves of the world (around 20 million) are in the legal chain of production

39. It can be understood with the tread-mill analogy

39.1. Tread-mills, at the beginning, were used to torture english prisioners.

39.1.1. It evolved and now it is use to work out

39.1.1.1. Still, it raises the concern that, everytime you step out of a tread-mill, you have to remember that, once, there was someone who could not.