CERT 08/2021 - Cohort 7 Unit 3, Activity 2: Assistive Technologies for Intervention

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CERT 08/2021 - Cohort 7 Unit 3, Activity 2: Assistive Technologies for Intervention by Mind Map: CERT 08/2021 - Cohort 7 Unit 3, Activity 2: Assistive Technologies for Intervention

1. Testing accommodation

2. Intellectual Disabilities (Daniel). Mild intellectual disabilities - high incidence. Severe - low incidence.

2.1. Individuals with significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive behavior. Affects about 2 to 3% of the general population. Seventy-five to ninety percent of the affected people have mild intellectual disability.

2.1.1. Behavioral treatments: speech therapy, social skills training.

2.1.2. Cognitive-behavioral treatments: memory training, stategic thinking training,

2.1.3. Psychosocial treatments: encouragement of exploration, mentoring in basic skills, celebration of developmental advances, guided rehearsal for new skills, exposure to a rich and responsive language environment.

2.1.4. Family-oriented strategies focus on empowering the family with the skill set they need to support children with an intellectual disability.

2.1.5. Assistive technologies: memory aids, smart pens, co-writer (communication tech), mind maps, graphic organizer, noise canceling tech, super talker (communication device), smart watch, Ginger (assistive writing tool) Solo 6 Literacy Suite Simple Smartphone See and Learn Speech Keyguards PFM PRO (audio device) KNFB (Reader) Memo to Me

2.1.6. Teaching strategies: group learning, play based learning, hands on learning, chaining (breaking tasks down into parts), positive reinforcement, small ideas to larger concepts slowly, repeat concepts throughout the day, quiet workspace, teach adaptive skills, teach practical skills, use all the senses to learn, consider safety measures.

3. Deafness (Low Incidence) - Josh

3.1. Assistive Technologies

3.1.1. Assistive Listening Devices (ALD)

3.1.1.1. Hearing Loop / Induction Loop

3.1.1.2. FM Systems

3.1.1.3. Infrared Systems

3.1.1.4. Personal Amplifiers

3.1.1.5. Speech/Text to ASL Translators

3.1.1.5.1. iOS: Mimix

3.1.1.5.2. Android: Hand Talk

3.1.2. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices (AAC)

3.1.2.1. Speech Generation

3.1.2.1.1. Typing Based

3.1.2.1.2. Picture Based

3.1.2.1.3. ASL to Speech/Text Translator

3.1.2.2. Voice Recognition

3.1.2.2.1. Live Captioning Phone Apps

3.1.2.2.2. Subscription-based Captioning Services

3.1.2.2.3. Call Captioning Apps

3.1.2.2.4. Browser Based Captioning

3.1.2.2.5. Landline Call Translation Device

3.1.2.3. Realtime Translation

3.1.2.3.1. Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART)

3.1.2.3.2. Paid Video-Based ASL Translation Service

3.1.2.3.3. Videophone (now obsolete)

3.1.3. Alerting Devices

3.1.3.1. Home

3.1.3.1.1. Alert Type: Vibration/Physical

3.1.3.1.2. Alert Type: Visual / Light

3.1.3.1.3. Trigger: Clock/Time

3.1.3.1.4. Trigger: Phone Calls

3.1.3.2. Mobile

3.1.3.2.1. Trigger: Specific Sounds (Doorbell, etc)

3.1.3.2.2. Alert Type: Vibration / Physical

3.2. Other Accomodations

3.2.1. Classroom

3.2.1.1. Teacher Considerations

3.2.1.1.1. Ensure Student Attention Before Speaking

3.2.1.1.2. Avoid Blocking Mouth/Face/Chewing Gum

3.2.1.1.3. Additional Visual Supplements

3.2.1.2. Environmental Considerations

3.2.1.2.1. Safety

3.2.1.2.2. Learning

3.2.2. Home (See Assistive Technologies)

4. Multiple Disabilities (Low-Incidence Disability) - Cohort Contribution

4.1. Multiple disabilities means concomitant impairments, the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. Multiple disabilities does not include deaf-blindness. (IDEA, 2018)

4.2. Very specific to the individual with accommodations having to be catered to each students

4.2.1. Examples given from IDEA are intellectual/blindness and intellectual/orthopedic. Just examples

4.2.2. Must have a special needs program in place to accommodate and work with child and parents

4.3. Assistive Technologies

4.3.1. Alternative Communication Methods

4.3.1.1. Text-to-speech

4.3.1.2. Hearing aids

4.3.1.3. Sign language

4.3.2. Applications for Communication

4.3.2.1. Digital library

4.3.2.1.1. Audio books

4.3.2.2. Voice recognition

4.3.2.3. Note-taking/audio recording

4.3.2.4. Talking Calculator

4.3.2.5. Virtual Manipulatives - uses visuals to teach fractions, decimals and percentages.

4.3.3. Augmentative Communication System

4.3.3.1. Microswitch Technology

4.3.3.2. Handheld Personal Computer

4.4. Other Accommodations

4.4.1. Classroom

4.4.1.1. Individualized Education Program (IEP)

4.4.1.1.1. Alternative textbooks (e.g. braille, audio, etc.)

4.4.1.2. Aware of Medical Conditions and Medical Plan in Place

4.4.1.3. An Assigned Assistant

4.4.1.4. Priority seating

4.4.1.5. See Assistive Technologies above

4.4.1.6. Environmental Considerations

4.4.1.6.1. Ease of Movement within Classroom

4.4.1.6.2. Safety of Classroom Setting

4.4.2. Home

4.4.2.1. Physical therapy

4.4.2.2. Occupational therapy

4.4.2.3. See Assistive Technologies above

5. Speech and language impairment / High Incidence (Sergej)

5.1. Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/a/300.8/c

5.1.1. assistive technologies

5.1.1.1. Assistive technology can be broken into 2 sub-categories: Hi-tech and Lo-tech. - Hi-tech refers to electronic devices and are usually more expensive, but includes software that addresses anything from articulation impairments to text to speech applications. - Lo-Tech refers to less expensive technical options such as picture communication boards which contains pictures that represent often used items, phrases, or needs.

5.1.1.2. Text to Speech

5.1.1.3. Reading Pens

5.1.1.4. Voice Recognition

5.1.1.5. Digital Recorders

5.1.1.6. iPads and Tablets

5.1.1.7. Electronic Spell Checkers

5.1.1.8. Word Prediction Software

5.1.1.9. Visual Search Engines

5.1.1.10. Literacy Specific Software

5.1.1.11. Educational Software

5.1.1.12. Electronic Resources and Books

5.1.1.13. Speech-language pathology students use hi-tech AAC to enrich communication

5.1.2. other accommodations

5.1.2.1. Augmentative communication device (synthesized speech, print output, etc.)

5.1.2.2. Course modifications, such as one-to-one presentations and the use of a computer with a voice synthesizer

5.1.2.3. Articulation Accommodations • Familiar listener for testing • Do not penalize for speech errors • Allow the student to write answers instead of verbally answering • Provide a private location for testing • Substitute oral assignments

5.1.2.3.1. Classroom Accommodations/Modifications for Speech Impairments: The most effective support for students with speech impairments is to receive speech therapy given by a speech-language pathologist (SLP). (Smith & Tyler, 2014) Based on speech severity, allow the student to substitute oral assignments with written papers or use other available technologies. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Modify grading based on speech impairment. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Allow the student time to express themselves. Do no interrupt a slow speaker. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Provide the SLP with spelling/vocabulary lists. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Allow the use of assistive technologies. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Develop a procedure for the student to ask for help. (Do2Learn.com, 2013) Be a good speech model and speak directly to the student. (education.qld.gov.au, 2015) Reduce unnecessary classroom noise as much as possible. (education.qld.gov.au, 2015)

5.1.2.4. Language Accommodations • Allow the student to write answers instead of verbally answering • Modify the length of assignments • Provide a private location for testing • Allow use of adaptive technologies • Provide a copy of class notes • Allow extended time for assignments and tests • Give spelling/vocabulary lists prior to beginning a new unit • Use visual cues • Repeat directs using different words.

5.1.2.4.1. Classroom Accommodations/Modifications for Language Impairments: Students are greatly benefited by receiving language therapy from a speech-language therapist (SLP). (Smith & Tyler, 2014) Provide the student with information on topics prior to going over them in class. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Minimize classroom noises and distractions. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Provide copy of class notes. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Give assignments both orally and written. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Allow extended time for assignments and tests. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Modify the length of assignments. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Provide a private location for testing. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Allow use of adaptive technologies. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Provide SLP with spelling/vocabulary lists. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Pre-teach words/ideas before using them in a real situation. (www.fentress.k12tn.net) Do not assume understanding of spoken instructions. (education.qld.gov.au, 2015) Ensure student has a way to appropriately express wants and needs. (Do2Learn.com, 2013) Ask open-ended questions. (Do2Learn.com, 2013) Present only one concept at a time. (Do2Learn.com, 2013) Work at the student's pace. (Do2Learn.com, 2013) Use tactic and visual cues (e.g. pictures, 3-D objects). (Do2Learn.com, 2013) Use as many hands-on experiences as possible. (Eggleston & Larson, 2007) Graphic organizers are useful in helping students organize and understand various language concepts. (Smith & Tyler, 2014)

5.1.2.5. Social Accommodations • Visual schedules • Allow opportunities to support appropriate social interactions • Provide small group activities where possible.

5.1.2.6. Additional Accommodations • When working with multi-step projects, provide written directions to help guide them. • Provide preferential or optimal seating. • Be specific when giving directions.

5.2. Students with high-incidence disabilities make up 80% of all students with disabilities. Friend and Bursuck (2012) say students with High-Incidence disabilities share these characteristics:

5.3. Often hard to distinguish from students without disabilities, especially in non-school settings.

5.4. Often display a combination of academic, behavioral and social problems.

5.5. Can meet same standards as students without disabilities when highly structured interventions are put into place.

6. Visual impairments -(Low Incidence)- Charles

6.1. Visual Impairments (Low-Incidence Disability) - Charles Morton

6.1.1. Assistive Technologies (AT)

6.1.1.1. Low Tech

6.1.1.1.1. Environmental considerations

6.1.1.1.2. Braille

6.1.1.1.3. Enlarged text

6.1.1.1.4. Handheld magnifiers

6.1.1.1.5. Adaptive paper

6.1.1.1.6. Slate and stylus

6.1.1.1.7. Abacus

6.1.1.2. High Tech

6.1.1.2.1. Audiobooks

6.1.1.2.2. Digital text

6.1.1.2.3. Video magnification / CCTV

6.1.1.2.4. Word processor

6.1.1.2.5. Handheld digital recorder

6.1.1.2.6. Braille embosser

6.1.1.2.7. Text to speech software

6.1.2. Visual Impairment

6.1.3. Visual impairment is a term experts use to describe any kind of vision loss, whether it's someone who cannot see at all or someone who has partial vision loss. Some people are completely blind, but many others have what's called legal blindness.

6.1.4. Early intervention

6.1.4.1. Parents

6.1.4.2. Caregiver

6.1.4.3. Visual evaluation

6.1.4.4. As early as possible!

7. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Low-Incidence Disability) - Morgan Smith

7.1. Assistive Technologies (AT)

7.1.1. Low-tech AT: low cost, easy-to-use, does not require electricity.

7.1.1.1. Picture Cards (e.g. PECS)

7.1.1.2. Weighted Vests

7.1.1.3. Sensory Balls

7.1.1.4. Picture Boards

7.1.1.5. Stress Balls

7.1.1.6. Cuisenaire Rods

7.1.1.7. Alphabet Blocks

7.1.1.8. Organizers - ordinary written planners, color-coded schedules, and visual reminders

7.1.1.9. Social Stories

7.1.2. Mid-tech AT: easy to operate tools.

7.1.2.1. Apps for Both Augmentative Communication and Speech Therapy

7.1.2.2. Battery-Operated Sensory Toys

7.1.2.3. Visual Timers

7.1.2.4. Watches with Alarms

7.1.2.5. Sound-blocking Headphones

7.1.2.6. Audiobooks

7.1.2.7. Video Modeling/Video Gaming

7.1.3. High-tech AT: digital technology.

7.1.3.1. Mind Mapping Software!

7.1.3.2. Robots

7.1.3.3. Speech to Text Software

7.1.3.4. Artificial Intelligence (AI)

7.1.4. AT for Safety

7.1.4.1. ID Bracelets

7.1.4.2. Tags

7.1.4.3. Cards

7.1.4.4. Trackers

7.2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. People with ASD may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in ways that are different from most other people. The learning, thinking, and problem-solving abilities of people with ASD can range from gifted to severely challenged - treatment varies. (CDC, 2021)

7.2.1. Autism Explained

7.3. Other Accommodations

7.3.1. Early Intervention/Detection

7.3.1.1. Parents

7.3.1.2. Child Care Providers

7.3.1.3. Educators

7.3.1.4. Coaches/ECA Facilitators

7.3.2. Specialist for In-depth Evaluation

7.3.2.1. Developmental Pediatrician

7.3.2.2. Child Neurologists

7.3.2.3. Child Psychologists

7.3.2.4. Child Psychiatrists

7.3.2.5. Local City or State's

7.3.3. Classroom

7.3.3.1. Individualized Education Program (IEP)

7.3.3.2. Delivery Methods of Instruction

7.3.3.3. Classroom Arrangement

7.3.3.4. Alternative Assessments

7.3.3.5. Differentiate Instruction

7.3.3.6. See Assistive Technologies (AT) above

7.3.3.7. Classroom Safety/Environment

7.3.4. Home

7.3.4.1. See Assistive Technologies (AT) above

7.3.4.2. Stick to a Schedule

7.3.4.3. Be Consistent

7.3.4.4. Create a Personalized Autism Treatment Plan

7.3.4.5. Home Safety Zones

7.3.4.6. ADS Support Groups

8. Deaf-Blindness-Low Incidence(V)

8.1. Information

8.1.1. Deafblindness, also known as dual-sensory impairment, is a term used to describe a unique disability in which a combination of hearing and visual impairment is present (Perfect et al., 2019).

8.1.2. This disability is both physical and emotional. It causes feelings of isolation and exclusion. Students who suffer from Deaf-Blindness cannot be assisted in programs that are designed for solely blind or deaf people.

8.1.3. Statistics: .2% of the world's population are diagnosed with severe Deaf-Blindness. 2% of the world's population are diagnosed with milder forms of Deaf-Blindness.

8.2. Assistive Technology/Accommodations

8.2.1. Braille

8.2.2. Digital Braille

8.2.3. Print on Palm

8.2.4. VoiceOver (iPhone app)

8.2.5. ComTouch

8.2.6. Tadoma: person with Deaf-Blindness puts thumb on speaker’s laps or jawline.

8.2.7. Hey Yaa: a belt that utilizes vibrations to provide communication between wearers.

8.2.8. The Hug Shirt: a shirt with sensors that transmit the sensation of touch, the warmth of the skin and the heartbeat rate of the sender.

8.2.9. Mobile Lorm Glove: a glove that utilizes the Lorm language via pressure sensors to send and receive text messages.

8.2.10. ActiveBelt: a GPS belt that delivers directions via vibrations.

8.2.11. UltraCane: A high-tech cane that emits ultrasonic waves to detect obstacles up to 4 meters away and gives tactile feedback to the user via vibrations.

8.2.12. Service Animals

9. Jessica - hearing impairments (Low incidence)

9.1. IEP in schools with clear guidelines for each student should be in place

9.1.1. Clear PD on accommodations for teachers and all stakeholders

9.2. Assistive Technologies

9.2.1. Choclear implants

9.2.2. FM systems

9.2.3. Cart reporters

9.2.4. Interpreters

9.2.5. Hearing aides

9.2.6. Speech to text

9.2.7. Note takers

9.2.7.1. Captioned media

9.2.8. Remote services

9.3. Effective seating placement

9.4. Types of hearing loss seen (congential or acquired)

9.4.1. Sensorineural

9.4.1.1. Usually permanent due to damage of inner cell hairs will see use of AT with this type most often

9.4.1.2. most often type to see use of AT in class

9.4.2. Mixed (less common)

9.4.2.1. Auditory processing disorder (APD) - much less common, brain doesn't interpret sound correctly

9.4.2.1.1. Misophonia possibly falls in this category .

9.4.2.2. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD)

9.4.3. Structural and usually temporary. Can usually be fixed with surgery or other interventions

9.4.4. Conductive

10. Andrea—Specific Learning Disability (SLD) -High Incidence-

10.1. Highest Incidence of all 13 Categories

10.1.1. Dyslexia

10.1.1.1. Accommodations

10.1.1.1.1. Verbal Instructions

10.1.1.1.2. Audio format text and instructions

10.1.1.1.3. Larger print and fewer items per page

10.1.1.1.4. Extended time

10.1.2. Dyscalculia

10.1.2.1. Cf. ADA-Americans with Disabilities Act—Testing Accommodations https://www.ada.gov/regs2014/testing_accommodations.pdf

10.1.2.2. Accommodations

10.1.2.2.1. Use of the calculator

10.1.2.2.2. Reduce visual and/or auditory distractions

10.1.2.2.3. Changing order of tasks or subtests

10.1.3. Dysgraphia

10.1.3.1. Accommodations

10.1.3.1.1. Electronic dictionary, Spelling and Grammar Checker on

10.1.3.1.2. Information in song or poem form

10.1.3.1.3. Retelling as soon as possible after a lecture

10.2. 11 national organizations have a protocol to determine the eligibility for special education under the "Specific Learning Disability Classification"

10.3. Best Accommodation: IEP (Individual Educational Plan) Process

10.3.1. Special Education Teacher

10.3.2. Step 1: IEP Document Drafting

10.3.2.1. The IEP is a binding document for the provision of services between the district and the parents

10.3.2.1.1. What is inside the IEP?

10.3.3. Step 2: IEP Annual Meeting

10.3.3.1. People in Attendance:

10.3.3.1.1. District Representative or Administrator

10.3.3.1.2. Educational Data Specialist

10.3.3.1.3. General Education Teacher

10.3.3.1.4. Parents are invited and encouraged to attend

11. Other Health Impairment (OHI) - High Incidence - Chloe

11.1. Definition- Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems. (IDEA, 2018)

11.1.1. ADD and AH/AD

11.1.2. Diabetes

11.1.3. Epilepsy

11.1.4. Heart Conditions

11.1.5. Hemophilia

11.1.6. Lead poisoning

11.1.7. Leukemia

11.1.8. Nephritis

11.1.9. Rheumatic fever

11.1.10. Sickele cell anemia

11.1.11. Tourette syndrome

11.2. Interventions

11.2.1. Early intervention services

11.2.1.1. (Under the age 3) identifying the needs of the child (and family) based on the child’s disability or developmental delay, and designing and delivering an individualized family service plan (IFSP) to address the child’s unique needs.

11.2.2. Special education and related services

11.2.2.1. (Age from 3-21) These services include specially designed instruction and a wide range of supports to address the student’s individual needs that result from his or her disability.

11.2.3. Life at school

11.2.3.1. Medical services

11.2.3.1.1. Services provided by a licensed physician

11.2.3.2. School health services and school nurse services

11.2.3.2.1. It enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE.

11.3. Assistive technology

11.3.1. Video taping class sessions for students

11.3.2. Textbooks on tape

11.3.3. Laptop or portable word processor to take notes

11.3.4. Audio recognition software

11.3.5. Voice recognition software

11.3.6. Word prediction software

11.3.7. Computers with speech input

11.3.8. Adaptive keyboard, mouse, etc.

11.4. Other accomdations

11.4.1. Flexible time limits

11.4.2. Freedom to use bathroom or drinking fountain

11.4.3. frequent breaks

11.4.4. reduced assignments

11.4.5. alternative grading scale

11.4.6. safe place

11.4.7. alternative assignments when absent frequently

12. CERT 08/2021 - Cohort 7 Unit 3, Activity 2: Assistive Technologies for Intervention 1. Autism Spectrum Disorders – Morgan Smith 2. Deaf-blindness - Valentia Vizzi 3. Deafness – Josh Miller 4. Emotional disturbance - Kevin Twitchell 5. Hearing impairment - Jessica Tsuchiya 6. Intellectual disability - Daniel Wright 7. Orthopedic impairment - Julia Smith 8. Multiple Disabilities – Cohort Collective Contribution 9. Other Health Impairments - Chloe Fu 10. Specific learning disability— Andrea Placidi 11. Speech or language impairment - Sergej Yatsenka 12. Traumatic brain injury – John Canaris 13. Visual impairment - Charles Morton

13. Kevin - Emotional Disturbances - High Incidence

13.1. Accomodations

13.1.1. Different testing environments

13.1.1.1. Gives students a variety of options for taking tests. They can either get more time for testing, can move to a different classroom for testing, or can even have a designated space for them to take their tests that is quieter and less full of distractions.

13.1.2. Relaxed due dates

13.1.2.1. Provides students with a more flexible schedule with homework, testing, etc. A student and teacher working together can create a more manageable schedule that fits the student's needs.

13.1.3. Counseling sessions

13.1.3.1. Either with a school counselor or a mental health professional from outside of the school district. This needs to be pursued with the direct support of parents.

13.1.4. Schedule flexibility

13.1.4.1. Provide the student with a more relaxed schedule in terms of attendance, late policies, or due dates. This gives students a better chance at success by removing some of the pressure.

13.1.5. Early release/late start

13.1.5.1. Some school districts implement a policy as part of an IEP where students can either arrive late or leave early during the school week. Sometimes this only applies to certain days and sometimes it applies to every school day for a student.

13.1.6. Goal/planning sessions with teachers and other faculty

13.1.6.1. Individualized plans are made between students and teachers that will help the student achieve their academic goals.

13.1.7. Personalized goals

13.1.7.1. Students, teachers, and parents all consult to create academic goals that are suitable for the student's current situation. These are updated regularly.

13.1.8. Smaller classroom sizes

13.1.8.1. Some schools offer specialized classes where the subject matter is exactly the same as what is happening in other classes, but the class sizes are smaller. This gives students more of a chance for one-on-one time with a teacher.

13.1.9. Open communication between parents, teachers, psychologists/therapists/psychiatrists

13.1.9.1. Phone calls, emails, and other means of communication help form a stream of constant communication about a student's well-being and progress.

13.2. What it is: “condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:” (Sec. 300.8 (c) - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

13.2.1. Inability to learn that can’t be explained by intellectual, sensory, health factors.

13.2.2. Inability to build/maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

13.2.3. Inappropriate types of behavior/feelings under normal circumstances.

13.2.4. General pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

13.2.5. Tendency to develop physical symptoms/fears associated with personal/school problems.

13.2.6. This term also includes schizophrenia.

13.2.7. Does NOT include: children who are socially maladjusted unless otherwise determined by a mental health professional.

13.2.8. This can also include mental health issues like general anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, OCD, depression, etc.

13.3. Assistive Technologies

13.3.1. Dragon Naturally Speaking - speech-to-text software that can also help with proofreading, editing, etc.

13.3.2. iPad/tablet - can download and store textbooks, assignments, and other useful reading material. Can also help students access apps that will further help with accommodations.

13.3.3. Kurzweil 3000 - text-to-speech software that can help with reading and writing for students who may struggle. It also allows for text magnification and includes a picture dictionary.

13.3.4. Smartpen - a pen that serves both as a tool for taking notes and as a tool for recording classes. It provides two ways for a learner to take notes.

13.3.5. Reminder devices - these devices (like smart watches) can vibrate or send text alerts to remind students of due dates, class times, or even just to stay on task.

13.3.6. Talk Light - a noise-level management tool for helping to turn classrooms into friendlier environments for people who are overstimulated by noise.

13.3.7. Draft:Builder - a graphical organizer that also works as a general writing tool.

14. John Canaris Traumatic Brain Injury Souces Bowen, J.M. (2018, August 15). Classroom Interventions for Students with Traumatic Brain Injuries. BrainLine. https://www.brainline.org/article/classroom-interventions-students-traumatic-brain-injuriesLow-Incidence Disabilities - Inclusion Resource. (n.d.). Inclusion Resource Notebook. Retrieved September 12, 2021, from https://sites.google.com/site/inclusionresourcenotebook/ - National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke. (2017, May 27). What Disabilities Can Result From a TBI? BrainLine. https://www.brainline.org/article/what-disabilities-can-result-tbi

14.1. Does not include congenital or degenerative brain injuries

14.2. Cognition

14.2.1. thinking, memory, reasoning

14.3. Sensory processing

14.3.1. sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell

14.3.1.1. Accommodations, Assistive Technologies

14.3.1.1.1. Accomodations

14.3.1.1.2. Assistive Technologies

14.4. Communication

14.4.1. expression, understanding

14.5. Behavioural or mental health

14.5.1. depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out, social inappropriateness