Linguistic Foundations in English

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Linguistic Foundations in English by Mind Map: Linguistic Foundations in English

1. The origines of language

1.1. The devine source

1.1.1. Provided from God

1.2. The natural sound source

1.2.1. A quite different view of the beginnings of language is based on the concept of natural sounds

1.3. The social interaction source

1.3.1. Coordinates physical effort and spoken interaction

1.4. The physical adaptation source

1.4.1. Teeth

1.4.2. Mouth

1.4.3. Larynx

1.4.4. Pharynx

1.5. The tool making source

1.5.1. (producing speech sounds

1.6. The genetic source

1.6.1. Physical organs that help to generate speech

2. Animals and human language

2.1. Communication

2.1.1. Communicative signals, Informative Signals

2.2. Properties of human language

2.2.1. Displacement

2.2.1.1. The capability of language to communicate about things that are not immediately present

2.2.2. Arbitrariness

2.2.2.1. Is the absence of any natural or necessary connection between a word's meaning and its sound or form.

2.2.3. Productivity

2.2.3.1. Is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.

2.2.4. Cultural transmision

2.2.4.1. Is the process whereby a language is passed on from one generation to the next in a community

2.2.5. Duality

2.2.5.1. phonology and meaning.

2.3. Talking to animals

2.3.1. If it seems difficult to conceive of animals understanding human language, then it appears to be even less likely that an animal would be capable of producing human language.

2.4. Chimpanzees and languages

2.4.1. Washoe

2.4.2. Sarah and Lana

2.4.3. Controversity

2.4.4. Kanzi

2.5. Using language

2.5.1. Important lessons have been learned from attempts to teach chimpanzees how to use forms of language.

3. The sound of language

3.1. Phonetics

3.1.1. The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds

3.2. Voiced and voiceless sounds

3.2.1. In articulatory phonetics, we investigate how speech sounds are produced using the fairly complex oral equipment we have.

3.3. Place of articulation

3.3.1. Bilabials

3.3.2. Labiodentals

3.3.3. Dentals

3.3.4. Alveolars

3.3.5. Palatals

3.3.6. Velars

3.3.7. Glottals

3.4. Consonant sounds

3.4.1. It contains the majority of consonant sounds used in the basic description of English pronunciation.

3.5. Manner of articulation

3.5.1. Stops

3.5.2. Fricatives

3.5.3. Affricates

3.5.4. Nasals

3.5.5. Liquids

3.5.6. Glides

3.5.7. Glottal stops and flaps

3.6. Vowels

3.6.1. Diphthongs

3.6.2. Subtle individual variation

4. The sound patterns of language

4.1. Phonology

4.1.1. Is essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language.

4.2. Phonemes

4.2.1. Meaning-distinguishing sounds in a language is described as a phoneme.

4.3. Phones and allophones

4.3.1. Phones are phonetic units

4.3.2. Phonemic distinctions in a language can be tested via pairs and sets of words.

4.4. Phonotactics

4.4.1. This type of exercise involving minimal sets also allows us to see that there are definite patterns in the types of sound combinations permitted in a language.

4.5. Syllables

4.5.1. Consonant clusters

4.6. Coarticulation effects

4.6.1. Assimilation

4.6.2. Elision

4.6.3. Normal speech