Lenses in Reading: Theories and Models In education, a theory is defined as ...

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Lenses in Reading: Theories and Models In education, a theory is defined as a well-documented explanation for a phenomenon related to teaching or learning (4) Theories are explanations linked to behavior and practices and drive an educators teaching (6) . Theories also explain research hypotheses and provide a framework for discussing research findings (15). Theories then provide the link for understanding connections and in return research studies are used to support' refute, prove and disprove theories (15). Lenses in Reading allows educators an overview to examine the reading process, reading instruction and reading research needed to build behaviors and practices in the classroom (15). by Mind Map: Lenses in Reading:  Theories and Models                   In education, a  theory is defined  as a well-documented explanation for a phenomenon related to teaching or learning (4) Theories are explanations linked to behavior and practices and drive an educators teaching (6) .  Theories also explain research hypotheses and provide a framework for discussing research findings (15).  Theories then provide the link for understanding connections and in return research studies are used to support' refute, prove and disprove theories (15). Lenses in Reading allows educators an overview to examine the reading process, reading instruction and reading research needed to build behaviors and practices in the classroom (15).

1. Cognitive Based or Unobservable Theories

1.1. Cognitive-Processing Lenses-explain the internal workings of the mind as individuals engage in complex mental activities (193)

1.1.1. Information-Processing Theories & Models-the cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing storage and retrieval of knowledge from the mind marked by a discrete stage and conceptual orientation (194) "Bottoms UP" depict the reading process as a series of discrete stages through which information passes moving from lower levels like identifying letters to that of information to higher levels of understanding meaning (204) Information-Processing Model-information moves through stages or storage systems to be processed, reflected upon, learned, saved and retrieved. (Atkinson & Shiffrin's 1968) (194) Organized by executive executive control processes-control and guide information through the various stages of learning (Slavin's articulatory loop) (195) LaBerge and Samuel's Automatic Information-Processing Model-reading begins with visual processing of text (1974) (199) Gough's Model-process begins when the eye captures the input of each letter from the printed (Rumelhart 1994) (196) "Top Down" models driven by what is in reader's head not on page such as background knowledge (topic, text structure, sentence structure and vocabulary and knowledge of letter sound tomake prediction and by hypotheses. Psycholinguistic Theory and Whole Language Theory (See Contructivism Theory) "Simultaneous" refers to use of information proved from multiple sources during reading variety of processors on visual information simultaneously rather than linear Rumelhart"s Interactive Model-higher level processes assist lower level functions, reflects real life phenomena, initiated by visual input but not linear, believes it is the most probable interpretation (203) Stanovich's Interactive-Compensatory Models-extended the idea that Rumelhart's Interactive Model is compensatory (205) Connectionism-conceptualization of storing information in the brain as a series of connections of differing strengths-a system of neural wiring built on weighted relationships-connections change over time based on the experience of pairings-neural networks are capable of learning (209) Parallel Distributed Processing Model-all cognitive information is stored as a series of connections between units and the connections become stronger and faster with repeated parings ie as pairings become more frequent the strength increases (208) Dual-Route Cascaded Model-two routes for processing text based on the connectionist principles

2. Observable Theories

2.1. Behavioral Lenses

2.1.1. Behaviorism-defined as a perspective of learning that focuses on observable changes in behavior as opposed to Mentalism and Psychoanalytic Theory (39) Classical Conditioning Theory-Pavlov created the theory as a result of his research on dogs digestion (1920s) (41) unconditional stimulus and unconditional response -a loud noise and example of an unconditioned persons to the loud noise is a person's flinch-No learning, training or pairing needs to take place for response. conditional stimulus and conditional response-when the stimuli is paired with something else and it becomes the stimulus-ex. painting a flower paired with the loud noise Thorndike'sConnectionism-stimuli that occured after a behavior had an influence on future behaviors (Slavin 2003) Law of Effect or Principal of Reinforcement-an act is followed by a satisfying change in the environment the likelihood that the act will be repeated in similar situation increases but if a behavior is followed by unfavorable change the behavior decreases (43) Law of Readiness states that learning is facilitated when easier tasks precede those that are related but more difficult Law of Identical Elements states that more elements of one situation are identical to the elements of a second situation, the greater the transfer and thus the easier the learning in the second situation Law of Exercise states that the more stimulus-response connections are practiced the stronger the bonds become. The less the connections are used the weaker the bonds Operant Conditioning Theory-Skinner continued Pavlov and Watson's work on the importance of association in learning. Skinner called his classroom application programmed learning or programed instruction. Behavioral Objective-a statement that is created to identify a target behavior in need of change as well as to identify what behavioral change will constitute success.

2.2. Social Learning Lenses- emphasize the central role of social interaction in the development of knowledge and learning, emphasize the importance of social influences and social interaction for literacy learning (159)

2.2.1. Sociolinguistics Theory-based on the placement of language in society in social context of linguistic diversity; rooted in fields of anthropology, linguistic and literary analysis Bloom and Green (1984)-as a social process reading is used to establish, structure and maintain social relationships among people and a linguistic process such as reading issues to communicate intentions and meanings between the author and reader and also between people involved a reading event (160)

2.2.2. Socio-Cultural Theory-emphasizes the roles of social, cultural and historical factors in the human experience believing that children's literacy development is understood by exploring cultural, social and historical context (163) Microsystem-is the child's immediate environments such as home and classroom including activities roles and interpersonal relationships of the social settings with student has direct context Mesosystem is the layer of interaction that exists between two microsystems of home and school experiences and influence Exosystem-has an influence on a student even though the students does not interact directly with exosystem such as local, national and worldwide events Macrosystem is used to explain some of the consistencies observed at the microsystem and mesosystem levels asucha s families from a cultural group showing similar interaction patterns (164)

2.2.3. Social Constructivism Development is the transformation of socially shared activities into internal process, child's development depends on his or her interactions with the sign system Sign System-culture's oral and printed language-alphabet, words, listening,speaking and writing Semiotic Mediation is the usage of sgns system learning the most about language and corresponding sign system from people with whom they interact Zone of Proximal Development refers to the ideal level of task difficulty needed to facilitate learning allowing a child to be successful with appropriate support Scaffolding-assistance of adults and more competent peers provide during learning episodes-clues, reminders, encouragement , breaking down the problem into steps, providing an example or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner

2.2.4. Social Learning Theory or Social Cognitive Theory-idea that human behavior combines featurees of Behaviorism with social learning (170) Vicarious Learning or Observational Learning-learn by watching others (Bandura) attention phase-observers watch the model retention phase-observers think abou tand process what they observed reproduction phase-repeat the behavior that was modeled reinforcement phase-observers are often reinforces as they repeat modeled behaviors much cognition is used during observation learning

2.2.5. Critical Literacy Theory-considers the relationships between individuals, literacy, social transformation (Foucault) Challenges the traditional belief that education is a politically neutral process designed to promote the individual development of children (172) Focusing on the relationships between individuals, literacy power and social transformation (175) Knowledge and Power "The image of schooling as an opportunity for social mobility based on merit is replaced in critical thought , by one that shows how schools reproduce the unequal distribution of wealth and power that is hallmark of capitalistic societies and in so doing contribute to the maintenance of the status quo" "Within critical literacy theory there is an overarching emphasis on how broad structures of power in particular, social institutions, contribute to inequity and teachers and students' are prompted to use literacy to address social inequities in students' immediate or local communities" "reflection and action upon the world in order to change it" "Key to critical literacy theory is embedding literacy skills instruction (whether it is composition, spelling, analysis, grammar, persuasive writing etc) within the larger project of social change" Autonomous view of literacy refers to its functional and technical aspects Ideological Perspective on literacy argues that all text and readers have values representing a particular world view

2.2.6. Critical Race Theory has roots in the fields of law, sociology, history, ethnic studies and women's studies characterized by four tenets First it names and discusses the daily realities of racism and exposes how racism continues to privilege whites and to disadvantage people of color Second it legitimates and promotes the voices of people of color by using storytelling to integrate experiences knowledge drawn from a shared history Third it insists on critiquing liberalism particular the notion that meaningful social change can occur with out radical change to existing social structures Fourth, questions the efficacy of much of the civil rights legislation enacted in the united states arguing that rather than reducing the effects of racism on people of color the primary beneficiaries of this legislation have been whites

2.2.7. Multiliteracies Theory-developed by the New London Group (1996) developed the concept of multiliteracies to describe the new kinds of skills readers needed to negotiate electronic environments broadening to encompass multi semiotic modes (177)

3. Observable and Unobservable Theories

3.1. Affective Lenses-emotions, feelings and affects relating to learning and reading

3.1.1. Affective Foundations of Reading Emotions, Feeling and Affects-physiological, primitive drives (hunger) and affective systems are intertwined Emotional systems preserve and protect life as in basic fear and disgusts. Serve our social relationships through feelings like sexual interest and love. Drive intellectual curiosity and compassion. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: The Affective Dimension validated by Taormina and Gao and Chopra and Tanzi provide argument that human emotional system playing a undergirding and central role in higher levels of cognitive functioning such as literacy learning Zigler and Finn-Stevenson (2007) stated that educators must facilitate 'not only cognition and academics, but other developmental pathways such as physical and mental health, social emotional behaviors that contribute to school performances (140)

3.1.2. Attachment Theory-intimate attachments to other human beings from birth to old age (Bowlby 1969) Attachment is a system of behaviors aimed at establishing and mataining closeness and contact (140) Behaviors 1. maintaining contact with those to whom we are attached 2. using those with whom we are attached as secure base during periods of developmental exploration 3. using those whith whom we are attached as safe havens during periods of distress Ainsworth 1969 research based on Bowlby resulted in mother -interactions and infant development attachment patterns (141) secure attachment patterns in which infants user their mothers as a protective base and seek connections with them after separations or in times of stress Anxious-ambivalent attachment patterns in which infants are not able to use their mothers as a secure base and become angry with them or push their mothers away, after reuniting anxious-avoidant attachment patterns inw hich infants are not able to use their mothers as a secure base ad avoid their mothers after reuniting (Ahmad & Sahak 2009) Attachment patterns affect cognitive development (Krstic 2015) Teacher-Student Relationships-research shows that these relationships are marked by a student's sense that the teacher understands and cares about him or her as a person: by the student's perception that the teacher supports and respects him or her; by an overall positive feeling between the teachers and student; by a studen's sense that he or she is physically and emotionally safe with the teacher. Positive or secure teacher-student relationships are thse perceived to be high in closeness and low in conflict and dependency but marked with respect and caring with children seeing their teachers are sources of security(144) Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) quantitatively evaluate teacher -student relationships

3.1.3. Engagement Theory- engaged readers are those who are intrinsically motivated to read and who read frequently

3.1.4. Affective Neuroscience-extensive research makes clear that the brain networks supporting emotion, learning and memory are intricately and fundamentally intertwined and that it is simpossible to build memories, engage complex thoughts or make meaning ful decisions without emotion (Immordino-Yang & Damasio 2007) (148)

3.2. Developmental Lenses-explain childhood develpment and literacy growth from a longitudinal perspective-attempt to articulate the growth of specific behaviors and abilities across time

3.2.1. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development-importance of the child as an active organism in cognitive develpment and how children process information throughout their development (85) Factors Central to Children's Cognitive Development Bilogical maturation refers to the individuals genetic heredity that is present at birth ad will ultimately affect his or her growth Activity refers to the child's physical experiences through which he or she will construct much of his or her knowledge base Social Experiences refer to the child's interactions with others as she or he grows which will also affect her or his growth Equilibration is a child's search for cognitive balance when cognitive imbalance or dissonance occurs Stages of qualitatively different types of thinking from child to adult Sensorimotor Period (birth-2) thinking based on sensory exploration of the world through the lens of what is seen, heard, felt or tasted Preoperational Period (2-7) rapid language development occurs Concrete Operational Period (7-11) child is able to use concrete objects to think about abstract concepts Formal Operational Period (11-adult) child moves beyond concrete language in an abstract way

3.2.2. Maturation Theory-advocated for the postponement of reading instruction until a child was developmentally old enough to be successful and that parents should not attempt to teach their child to read thus all instruction come from school (88)

3.2.3. Theory of Literacy Development-learning to read is natural developmental occurrence and parents should reinforced by parents. Learning to read begins at home with reading to your child and modeling reading as they strive to emulate their parents in a rich home literacy environment, parent-child interactions of modeling and reinforcement (90) Three dimentions explanation of the developmental nature of literacy learning explanation of a method of teaching designed to promote development explanation of the four processes viewed as central to literacy learning Classroom characteristics of literacy learning for a rich literacy classroom environment labeling objects in room peer interaction amoung students immersing children in meaningful language experiences with high quality children's literature using a classroom management style that foster children's indendence and self regulation Big Books and Shared Reading

3.2.4. Stage Models of Reading regarding the stages through which readers pass as they move toward reading proficiency. Children's reading skills associated with later stages of development are attained Pre-alphabetic Stage called logographic stage where children use visual cues as their primary method of word recognition and memorize words by their shape Partial Alphabetic Stage-of word identification ability or phonetic cue reading where they use some letters sound cues to identify words Full Alphabetic Stage-the reader strive to process all of the letters of the word Consolidation Alphabetic Stage use automatic knowledge of sound-letter relationships to cluster letter patterns within words or word families or phonograms

3.2.5. Emergent Literacy Theory-word recognition dimension of the reading experience explaining early literacy development and provides instructional guidance to promote early literacy growth in a child's life between birth and their ability to read and write. (93) Interrelatedness between speaking, listening, reading and writing (Morrow 2012) Delays in one could result or suggest delays in other Development from birth is continuous and ongoing as it stresses the idea that a children's earliest experience of being talked to or read to are all parts of literacy develpment Home Literacy Environment correlates with children's early literacy ability (95)

3.2.6. Family Literacy Theory-family literacy is defined as the way families children and extended family members use literacy at home and in their community-refers to a unified theory of a series of shared viewpoints design, implementation and evaluation of program to facility the literacy develpment of family members the relationship between literacy use in families and students' academic achievement ways in which literacy is naturally used within the context of the home Home environment with interaction contribute to the literacy success (97)