Skin and Body Membranes

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Skin and Body Membranes by Mind Map: Skin and Body Membranes

1. Classification of body membranes

1.1. Epithelial membranes

1.1.1. Mucous

1.1.1.1. Surface epithelium

1.1.2. Cutaneous

1.1.2.1. Known as skin

1.1.3. Serous

1.1.3.1. Underlying areolar connective tissue

1.2. Connective tissue membrane

1.2.1. Synovial

1.2.1.1. Areolar connective tissue only

2. Skin Structure

2.1. Epidermis

2.1.1. Layers of Epidermis

2.1.1.1. Stratum basale

2.1.1.1.1. Deepest layer

2.1.1.2. Stratum granulosum

2.1.1.2.1. Old stratum spinosum cells

2.1.1.3. Stratum lucidum

2.1.1.3.1. Occurs in thick, hairless skin

2.1.1.4. Stratum corneum

2.1.1.4.1. Filled with cornified cells

2.2. Dermis

2.2.1. Dense connective tissue

2.2.2. Contains collagen and elastic fibers

2.2.3. Layers of dermis

2.2.3.1. Papillary layer

2.2.3.2. Reticular layer

2.3. Hypodermis

2.3.1. Composed mostly of adipose tissue

2.3.1.1. Serves as shock absorber and insulation for deeper tissues

3. Skin Color Determinants

3.1. Redness

3.1.1. Blushing

3.2. Pallor

3.2.1. Anemia

3.3. Jaundice

3.3.1. Liver disorder

3.4. Bruises

3.4.1. Hematomas

3.5. Melanin

3.5.1. Amound and kind (yellow, brown or black pigments)

3.6. Carotene

3.6.1. Orange-yellow pigment

3.7. Hemoglobin

3.7.1. Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries

4. Appendages of the skin

4.1. Hair

4.1.1. Serves a few minor protective functions

4.1.2. Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells

4.1.3. Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

4.1.4. Hair Structures

4.1.4.1. Hair follicle

4.1.4.1.1. Dermal (provides blood vessels) and epidermal sheath surround hair root

4.1.4.2. Arrector Pilli

4.1.4.2.1. Smooth muscle cause the hair to stand up

4.1.4.3. Sebaceous (oil) gland

4.1.4.4. Sweat gland

4.1.5. Hair Anatomy

4.1.5.1. Cuticle

4.1.5.2. Cortex

4.1.5.3. Medulla

4.2. Nail

4.2.1. Scale like modifications of the epidermis

4.2.2. Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed

4.2.3. Lack of pigment makes colorless

4.2.4. Nail structure

4.2.4.1. Free edge

4.2.4.2. Body

4.2.4.3. Root of nail

4.2.4.4. Eponychium

4.2.4.4.1. Cuticle

4.3. Glands

4.3.1. Cutaneous glands

4.3.1.1. Exocrine glands

4.3.1.1.1. Release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts

4.3.2. Sebaceous glands

4.3.2.1. Produce oil (sebum)

4.3.2.1.1. Lubricant for skin

4.3.3. Sweat glands

4.3.3.1. Sudoriferous glands

4.3.3.1.1. Two types of sweat glands

4.4. Sweat

4.4.1. Composition

4.4.1.1. Mostly water with some salts and vitamin C

4.4.1.2. Metabolic waste and lactic acid

4.4.1.3. Fatty acids and proteins

4.4.2. Function

4.4.2.1. Excretes waste products

4.4.2.2. Helps dissipate excess heat

4.4.2.3. Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth

5. Skin Homeostatic Imbalances

5.1. Infections and Allergies

5.1.1. Athletes foot

5.1.2. Boils and carbuncles

5.1.3. Cold sores

5.1.4. Contact dermatitis

5.1.5. Impetigo

5.1.6. Psoriasis

5.2. Burns

5.2.1. Tissue damage and cell death cause by heat, electricity etc.

5.2.2. Severity of Burns

5.2.2.1. First-degree

5.2.2.1.1. Only epidermis is damaged

5.2.2.2. Second-degree

5.2.2.2.1. Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged

5.2.2.3. Third-degree

5.2.2.3.1. Destroys entire skin layer

5.2.2.4. Fourth-degree

5.2.2.4.1. Go through both layers of the skin and tissue possibly involving muscle and bone

5.2.3. Critical Burns

5.2.3.1. Over 10% of the body has third degree burns

5.2.3.2. Over 25% of the body has second degree burns

5.2.3.3. There are third degree burns of the face, hands, or fee

5.3. Skin cancer

5.3.1. Two types of skin cancer

5.3.1.1. Benign

5.3.1.1.1. Does not spread

5.3.1.2. Malignant

5.3.1.2.1. Metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body

5.3.2. Skin cancer types

5.3.2.1. Basal cell carcinoma

5.3.2.2. Squamous cell carcinoma

5.3.2.3. Malignant Melanoma

5.3.2.3.1. Detection uses ABCD rule