Skin and Body Membranes

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Skin and Body Membranes by Mind Map: Skin and Body Membranes

1. Classification of body membranes

1.1. Epithelial membranes

1.1.1. Mucous Surface epithelium

1.1.2. Cutaneous Known as skin

1.1.3. Serous Underlying areolar connective tissue

1.2. Connective tissue membrane

1.2.1. Synovial Areolar connective tissue only

2. Skin Structure

2.1. Epidermis

2.1.1. Layers of Epidermis Stratum basale Deepest layer Stratum granulosum Old stratum spinosum cells Stratum lucidum Occurs in thick, hairless skin Stratum corneum Filled with cornified cells

2.2. Dermis

2.2.1. Dense connective tissue

2.2.2. Contains collagen and elastic fibers

2.2.3. Layers of dermis Papillary layer Reticular layer

2.3. Hypodermis

2.3.1. Composed mostly of adipose tissue Serves as shock absorber and insulation for deeper tissues

3. Skin Color Determinants

3.1. Redness

3.1.1. Blushing

3.2. Pallor

3.2.1. Anemia

3.3. Jaundice

3.3.1. Liver disorder

3.4. Bruises

3.4.1. Hematomas

3.5. Melanin

3.5.1. Amound and kind (yellow, brown or black pigments)

3.6. Carotene

3.6.1. Orange-yellow pigment

3.7. Hemoglobin

3.7.1. Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries

4. Appendages of the skin

4.1. Hair

4.1.1. Serves a few minor protective functions

4.1.2. Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells

4.1.3. Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

4.1.4. Hair Structures Hair follicle Dermal (provides blood vessels) and epidermal sheath surround hair root Arrector Pilli Smooth muscle cause the hair to stand up Sebaceous (oil) gland Sweat gland

4.1.5. Hair Anatomy Cuticle Cortex Medulla

4.2. Nail

4.2.1. Scale like modifications of the epidermis

4.2.2. Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed

4.2.3. Lack of pigment makes colorless

4.2.4. Nail structure Free edge Body Root of nail Eponychium Cuticle

4.3. Glands

4.3.1. Cutaneous glands Exocrine glands Release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts

4.3.2. Sebaceous glands Produce oil (sebum) Lubricant for skin

4.3.3. Sweat glands Sudoriferous glands Two types of sweat glands

4.4. Sweat

4.4.1. Composition Mostly water with some salts and vitamin C Metabolic waste and lactic acid Fatty acids and proteins

4.4.2. Function Excretes waste products Helps dissipate excess heat Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth

5. Skin Homeostatic Imbalances

5.1. Infections and Allergies

5.1.1. Athletes foot

5.1.2. Boils and carbuncles

5.1.3. Cold sores

5.1.4. Contact dermatitis

5.1.5. Impetigo

5.1.6. Psoriasis

5.2. Burns

5.2.1. Tissue damage and cell death cause by heat, electricity etc.

5.2.2. Severity of Burns First-degree Only epidermis is damaged Second-degree Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged Third-degree Destroys entire skin layer Fourth-degree Go through both layers of the skin and tissue possibly involving muscle and bone

5.2.3. Critical Burns Over 10% of the body has third degree burns Over 25% of the body has second degree burns There are third degree burns of the face, hands, or fee

5.3. Skin cancer

5.3.1. Two types of skin cancer Benign Does not spread Malignant Metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body

5.3.2. Skin cancer types Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant Melanoma Detection uses ABCD rule