Immune System

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Immune System by Mind Map: Immune System

1. Phagocytes

1.1. 1. Infection Response

1.1.1. 1. SOS Signal

1.1.2. 2. Adhesion

1.1.3. 3. Vasodilation

1.1.4. 4. Diapedesis (Phagocytes can "squeeze" between cells

1.1.5. 5. Chemotaxis (movement by chemical gradient)

1.2. 2. Phagocytosis

1.2.1. 1. Chemotaxis

1.2.2. 2. Adherence

1.2.3. 3. Engulfment

1.2.4. 4. Digestion

1.2.5. 5. Subsequent Phagocytic Activity (Exocytosis)

1.3. Types of Killing

1.3.1. Respiratory Burst (Oxygen-Dependent)

1.3.1.1. better killing

1.3.2. Oxygen-Independent (Granules and lysosomes

2. Innate Immunity

2.1. First Response

2.2. 12 hours (fast)

2.3. Non-specific

2.4. Second Line of Defense

3. Adaptive Immunity

3.1. Specific

3.2. Memory

3.3. Slow

3.4. Vaccines, antibodies

3.5. Third Line of Defense

4. Lymphocytes

4.1. T-cells; cellular immunity; CD 3 and 4; start in bone marrow -> mature in thymus

4.1.1. Pathways of T-cells

4.1.1.1. Endogenous

4.1.1.1.1. Intracellular: Virus gets into cell -> MHC-2 presents to cytotoxic CD 4 -> reacts, kills

4.1.1.2. Exogenous

4.1.1.2.1. MHC-1 presents antigen to T-helper CD 8 -> reacts to MHC-1

4.1.2. Helper T-cell; CD 4

4.1.2.1. T helper 1

4.1.2.1.1. cell-mediated effector mechanisms; classic infection; inflammatory; IgG

4.1.2.2. T helper 2

4.1.2.2.1. regulation of antibody production; control inflammation; allergic and parasitic response; IgE

4.1.2.3. T-reg

4.1.2.3.1. immunoregulatory type of Th cell; control autoimmunity in peripheral blood

4.1.3. Cytotoxic T-cell; CD 8

4.1.3.1. capable of directly destroying virally infected target cells

4.1.4. Suppressor T (Ts) lymphocytes -> downregulate actions of other T and B cells

4.2. B-cells; humoral immunity; CD 19 and 20; start in bone marrow -> mature in bone marrow; function is synthesis and excretion of immunoglobulins

4.2.1. produce plasma cells

4.2.1.1. make antibodies

5. Cells of Innate Immunity

5.1. Granulocytes

5.1.1. Neutrophils

5.1.1.1. most prevalent; large, segmented; defense against bacterial and fungal infections; roles in phagocytosis, inflammation, and formation of pus; two pools are circulating (circulation) and marginating (in tissues)

5.1.2. Eosinophils

5.1.2.1. homeostatic regulators of inflammation; can kill certain parasites; "calm down"; in allergic reactions too; 3-5%; bi-lobed most of the time; large granules

5.1.3. Basophiles (Blood) and Mast Cells (Tissue)

5.1.3.1. acute, systemic hypersensitivity reactions; hard to distinguish nucleus; huge granules -> histamine; very rare; almost look black

5.2. Monocytes (Blood) and Macrocytes (Tissue)

5.2.1. Antigen Presenting and Induction of the Immune Response and Secretion of Biologically Active Molecules

5.2.1.1. Sticks stuff on cell surface rather than dispose of it

5.2.2. Acute Inflammation Signs

5.2.2.1. 1. Rubar (Red Color)

5.2.2.2. 2. Heat

5.2.2.3. 3. Swelling (Fluid Buildup)

5.2.2.4. 4. Pain

5.2.2.5. 5. Loss of Function (scarring)

6. Antibodies

6.1. IgM

6.1.1. high weight; looks like snowflake; found in blood; first antibody in immune response; high avidity (locations); cannot cross placenta; reacts at cold temperatures

6.2. IgG

6.2.1. highest concentration in plasma; "immune"; can cross placenta; transferred in milk; secondary antibody in an immune response; test often; high affinity (tight)

6.3. IgA

6.3.1. mucus secretions; tears, GI tract; high in body, not blood; secretory component

6.4. IgD

6.4.1. don't know a lot; found in early antibody production

6.5. IgE

6.5.1. involved in allergic response; bind to the surface of mast cells and basophils; massive degranulation -> release of histamines -> cause allergic response

7. Lymphocyte Terms

7.1. Virgin/Naive: have not encountered their specific antigen

7.2. Differentiated: has encountered the antigen

7.3. Memory cells: long-lived T or B cells that have been stimulated by antigen