SECULARISATION: the process whereby religious beliefs, practices and institutions lose social sig...

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SECULARISATION: the process whereby religious beliefs, practices and institutions lose social significance (Wilson) by Mind Map: SECULARISATION: the process whereby religious beliefs, practices and institutions lose social significance (Wilson)

1. RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY

1.1. Berger

1.1.1. As the religious views of different people have diversified, their belief in God has diminished.

1.1.2. During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church held an unchallenged monopoly on the institution of religion.

1.1.2.1. As a result, everyone shared a sacred canopy or set of beliefs. The Church's version of truth had no rivals, thus these ideas had more credibility.

1.1.2.2. However, the Protestant Reformation brought about the growth in the quantity and variety of religious views.

1.1.3. While every single one of these had a contradictory interpretation of the truth, which ultimately weakened the plausibility structure of religion, each also had its own unique spin on reality.

1.1.4. A crisis of credibility was caused when its believability was damaged.

1.2. Bruce

1.2.1. Secularisation is the most serious reason for people turning away from religion because they feel unhappy living in a society where so many ideas are incompatible with one another.

1.2.2. Thus the only option is to completely dismiss them as false.

2. STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION

2.1. Parsons

2.1.1. As industrialisation progresses, structural differentiation takes shape, and a number of specialised institutions have been established to take on the tasks that were formerly centralised in the state (the church).

2.2. Bruce

2.2.1. Religion has become separated from society and has evolved into a religion that is only practiced privately and within the boundaries of the family.

2.2.1.1. Because religious and ceremonial practices have lost their value, it is now up to the individual to decide whether or not to believe in something.

2.2.2. According to contemporary society, the church has lost its political power and authority as a result of the fact that the state determines which sanctions are followed and which are not.

2.2.3. Churches are not required to pay taxes under any circumstances.

3. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY

3.1. Wilson

3.1.1. The loss of community and religion correlates with the transition from pre-industrial to industrial society.

3.1.2. Wilson believes that communal religious practices reflected shared values and controlled behaviour in pre-industrial cultures.

3.1.2.1. Religion lost its power and strength when it lost its connection to solid local communities.

3.2. Bruce

3.2.1. Likewise, Bruce sees industrialisation eroding religious consensus that binds tiny rural communities.

3.2.1.1. It's a shift from small, connected rural communities to huge, loosely-knit metropolitan communities with social and geographic mobility not only disperses groups but also increases diversity.

3.2.1.2. Even those who remain religious must acknowledge that many of those around them hold opposing ideas.

3.2.2. Alternatives, according to Bruce, diminish believing plausibility.

3.2.2.1. Individualism also undermines it since religion requires an active community of believers to be plausible.

3.2.2.2. In the absence of a daily functioning religious community, both belief and practice tend to diminish.

4. RATIONALISATION

4.1. Weber

4.1.1. "Rationalisation" refers to the process through which rational methods of behaving and understanding overcome religious ways of thinking.

4.1.2. The contemporary scientific viewpoint overtook the religious perspective of the Middle Ages during the 16th century, as a result of the Protestant Reformation.

4.1.3. Disenchantment occurred when God was considered to be apart from the world. The rules of nature were in control of the world, God did not make a special effort to influence creation.

4.1.3.1. After we had reason and science, the religious argument was no longer needed.

4.1.3.2. This allowed people to have greater control over nature, which resulted in a decrease in the religious perspective.

4.2. Bruce

4.2.1. Due to technical explanations prevailing over religious ones, the worldview has mainly shifted to a technological one.

4.2.2. To only be able to survive in locations with little technology, for example in third-world nations where there is insufficient medical treatment, people to rely on prayer to help them.

5. SECULARISATION IN AMERICA

5.1. Wilson discovered that 45 percent of Americans go to church on Sundays to show their lifestyle rather than their religious convictions. America has become a secular culture because of superficial religion.

5.1.1. Church Attendance Declining

5.1.1.1. Opinion surveys exaggerate church attendance compared to actual head counts. In one Ohio county, opinion surveys indicated attendance was 83 percent greater than actual attendance. This is a new phenomenon since church attendance is seen as socially acceptable.

5.1.2. Secularisation From Within

5.1.2.1. Less focus on essential Christian teachings that honour God. Religion has become a method of treatment. The majority of churchgoers today seek personal development rather than redemption. In 1951, 98 percent of young American Evangelical Christians felt alcohol consumption was immoral, while just 17 percent did so in 1982. So religion has becoming less prominent.

5.1.3. Religious Diversity

5.1.3.1. American Christians today understand that others are permitted to hold beliefs that differ from their own. In 1924, 94 percent of young people attending church thought that Christianity was the sole genuine religion, but in 1977, just 41 percent agreed. Because our society now comprises a range of opinions, our presumption that our own perspectives are better has been challenged.

5.1.4. Criticisms

5.1.4.1. Religion isn't dying, it's evolving. In addition to the rise of new faiths, the evidence of declining attendance excludes individuals who believe without belonging. Religion has dropped in Europe but not in America or internationally. Atheism is neither the future, nor is faith the past. With Postmodernism, fewer individuals believe but various sorts of believers.

6. SECULARISATION IN BRITAIN

6.1. Crockett

6.1.1. Crockett: In 1851, 40% of adults in the UK went to church on Sundays, calling the 19th century the "golden age" of religion.

6.2. Wilson

6.2.1. Wilson believes that Western society have been secularising for a long time. Religious ideas, rituals, and institutions have lost societal value. Ageing churchgoers and religious diversity are evidence of this trend.

6.3. Fewer adults attended Sunday services in 2005 (6.3%) than in 1960. Children's baptisms fell from 55% to 41% between 1991 and 2005 due to declining C of E and Catholic enrollment.

6.3.1. Gill

6.3.1.1. Gill: reviewed 100 national surveys on religious beliefs which showed a significant decline in the belief of a personal God, in Jesus as the son of God and traditional teachings about the afterlife.

6.3.1.2. Also, more people profess Christian faith than do so in reality.

6.3.2. Bruce

6.3.2.1. "Steady continuous deterioration" is how Bruce sums up secularisation. A continuation of present trends will reduce the Methodist Church to a minor volunteer group by 2030.

6.3.3. Religious institutions have diminished since the state has taken over many of the church's activities, relegating religion to the home. - used to be faith-based schools, but now are state-funded and must follow the NC. - Change from 45,000 priest in 1900 to 34,000 in 2000 Without priests in local areas, the church's daily impact diminishes

7. CULTURAL DEFENCE AND CULTURAL TRANSITION

7.1. Cultural Defence

7.1.1. Gives national or ethnic identity a point of focus for defence when challenged by an outside force

7.2. Cultural Transition

7.2.1. A feeling of belonging for ethnic groups that have migrated to a new location or culture

7.3. This is because religion serves as a focal point for collective identification. C/D and C/T illustrate that religion may endure when it serves other purposes. It's not only about connecting a person to a supernatural.

7.3.1. Religion loses relevance for migrants as they are integrated into society, as seen by the reduction in church attendance in Poland when communism fell.

7.3.2. Critisisms

7.3.2.1. Berger - Choice and diversity promote religious interest and engagement. Beckford - Religious variety may cause individuals to question or forsake their beliefs, but it may also enhance a religious group's devotion to their present beliefs.