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LINGUISTICS by Mind Map: LINGUISTICS

1. PHONETICS

1.1. DEFINITION

1.1.1. the study of the sounds in a language

1.2. MAIN AREAS OF PHONETICS

1.2.1. Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics Auditory phonetics

1.3. EXAMPLE

1.3.1. If the vocal folds are vibrating, this creates voicing and any sound made in this way are called voiced sounds, for example “z”. If the vocal folds are not vibrating, this does not lead to voicing and creates a voiceless sound e.g. “s”

1.4. SOUND

1.4.1. voiced sound

1.4.1.1. b, d, g, j, l, m, n, ng, r, sz, th, v, w, y, z.

1.4.2. voiceless sound

1.4.2.1. ch, h, f, k, p, s, sh, t, th.

1.5. EXAMPLE

1.5.1. how the letter "b" in the word "bed" is spoken

2. SEMANTICS

2.1. DEFINITION

2.1.1. the study of meanings in a language

2.2. EXAMPLE

2.2.1. Hungry person at the dinner table says: "I could eat a horse". It means she/he didn't eat anything today and now he/she is very hungry that he/she could eat a horse.

2.3. TYPES OF MEANING IN SEMANTICS

2.3.1. SPEAKER MEANING

2.3.1.1. is what a speaker means when he uses a piece of language

2.3.1.1.1. This suitcase is so heavy that I need someone to help me

2.3.2. SENTENCE MEANING

2.3.2.1. is what a sentence (or words ) means, i.e. what is counts as the equivalent of in the language concerned

2.3.2.1.1. This suitcase is killing me

2.4. COMPRISE

2.4.1. REFERENCE

2.4.1.1. 1.Referring expressions 2. Predicates 3. Predicates, referring expressions, and universe of discourse 4. Deixis and definiteness 5. Words and things: extensions and prototypes

2.4.2. SENSE

2.4.2.1. 1. Sense properties and stereotypes 2. Sense relations

2.4.3. WORD MEANING

2.4.3.1. 1. Properties of predicates 2. Participant roles

2.4.4. INTERPERSONAL AND NON LITERAL MEANING

2.4.4.1. 1. Speech acts 2. Perlocutions and illocutions 3. Felicity conditions 4. Conversational implicature

3. PHONOLOGY

3.1. DEFINITION

3.1.1. the study of the ways in which speech sounds form system and patterns in human language

3.2. EXAMPLE

3.2.1. pat' and 'bat' differ in their first phoneme: the “p” and “b”

3.3. THE PHONOLOGICAL UNITS OF LANGUAGE

3.3.1. The phoneme

3.3.2. Minimal pairs

3.3.3. Distinctive features

3.3.4. Allophones

3.4. CLASSIFYING SPEECH SOUNDS

3.4.1. consonants

3.4.2. vowels

3.4.2.1. pure vowels

4. MORPHONOLOGY

4.1. DEFINITION

4.1.1. the study of the internal structure of words and of the rules by which words are formed

4.2. CLASS OF MORPHEMES

4.2.1. FREE MORPHEME

4.2.1.1. love, drink,...

4.2.2. BOUND MORPHEME

4.2.2.1. -er, im-, ...

4.3. TYPES OF MORPHOPHONEMIC CHANGES

4.3.1. 1. Loss of phonemes 2. Addition of phonemes 3. Simple consonant change 4. Assimilation 5. Dissimilation 6. Synthesis 7. Change of syllabic vowel 8. Stress shift 9. Gradation 10. Suppletion

4.4. PRINCIPAL WAYS OF WORD FORMATION

4.4.1. 1. Derivation ( help --> helper) 2. Compouding (goal-keeper) 3. Conversion (up --> to up) 4. Clipping (ad = advertisement) 5. Acronymy (AA = Automobile Association) 6. Blending (alcopop = alcohol + pop ) 7. Back-formation (babysitter --> to babysit) 8. Sound imitation (meow meow) 9. Words from names (hamburger)

5. SYNTAX

5.1. DEFINITION

5.1.1. is a description of the way words are put together to make larger units, which are phrases, clauses and sentences.

5.2. Morphemes are the “lower” limit of grammatical enquiry. Sentences form the “upper” limit of grammatical study,

5.3. Syntactic models 1 Dependency grammar 2 Categorial grammar 3 Stochastic/probabilistic grammars/network theories 4 Functional grammars 5 Generative syntax 6 Cognitive and usage-based grammars

5.4. Nouns and Noun Phrases

5.5. Adjectives and Adjective

5.6. Adverbs and Adverb Phrases .

5.7. Prepostions and Prepositional Phrases

5.8. Clauses

5.9. Sentences

5.10. The Analysis of Sentences

5.11. Verbs and Verb Phrases