CHAPTERS 2 + 3

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CHAPTERS 2 + 3 by Mind Map: CHAPTERS 2 + 3

1. AIMS

1.1. Defeat communism

1.1.1. 5

1.2. Abolish the Treaty or Versailles

1.2.1. 1, 3

1.3. Expand German territories

1.3.1. 2, 6, 7, 8

2. LEAGUE OF NATIONS

2.1. 1920S

2.1.1. FAILURES

2.1.1.1. 1.Corfu, 1923

2.1.1.1.1. Italian general was killed and Mussolini invaded Corfu, Greece.

2.1.1.1.2. Britain did not accept Italy and were prepared to forcefully remove Mussolini

2.1.1.1.3. France supported the Italians

2.1.1.1.4. great powers were ununited, sacrificed justice for co-operation

2.1.1.2. 2. Working conditions

2.1.1.2.1. ILO banned poisonous paint and limited children's working hours

2.1.1.2.2. Campaigns to reduce working hours and improve working conditions were rejected by many

2.1.1.2.3. ILO hampered by lack of funds and power, could not do much.

2.1.1.3. 3. Disarmament

2.1.1.3.1. At Washington conference, Japan, Britain, France and the USA agreed to limit the size of their navies (as far as it got)

2.1.1.3.2. No one forced to disarm to the same extent as Germany, led to discontent.

2.1.2. SUCCESSES

2.1.2.1. 4. Bulgaria, 1925

2.1.2.1.1. Greek troops invaded Bulgaria

2.1.2.1.2. League quickly responded to Bulgaria's appeal for help, calling a meeting in Paris

2.1.2.1.3. Decided that Greece pull their troops and pay 45k pounds in compensation

2.1.2.1.4. situation was handled well, highlighted the effectiveness of the LON as great powers were united

2.1.2.2. 5. Internationalism

2.1.2.2.1. instilled the internationalist mindset

2.1.2.2.2. Encouraged Leaders to think in terms of collaboration rather than competing.

2.1.2.3. 6. refugees

2.1.2.3.1. 400k refugees were returned to their homes in first few years after WW1

2.1.2.3.2. EG Turkish refugee crisis in 1922, League kept refugee camps clean

2.1.2.4. 7. Health (WHO)

2.1.2.4.1. Sponsored research into infectious diseases at institutes across the world.

2.1.2.4.2. Was successful as it continued after 1945 in the form of the WHO

2.1.2.5. 8. reduced Slavery

2.1.2.5.1. Freed 200k slaves in Sierra Leone and organised raids against slave traders in Burma

2.1.2.5.2. Brought down death rate of workers at Tanganyika railway from 50% to 4%

2.1.2.6. 9. Economic Recovery

2.1.2.6.1. Dawes plan helped Germany, Britain, and France.

2.1.2.6.2. Increased trade which reduced tension

2.2. 1930s

2.2.1. THIS ONE ONLY GOT FAILURES

2.2.1.1. 10. The Manchurian Crisis,

2.2.1.1.1. invasion 1, 1931

2.2.1.1.2. Invasion 2, 1933

2.2.1.1.3. League didnt do anything as they wanted to Maintain a good relationship with Japan.

2.2.1.1.4. Concluded that the LON was powerless against a strong nation

2.2.1.1.5. Japan set a bad example, showing how you could commit aggression and get away with it, influencing both Mussolini and Hitler

2.2.1.2. 11. Disarmament

2.2.1.2.1. Manchurian crisis highlighted importance of disarmament. The 1932 Disarmament conference produced various resolutions, all of which fell through.

2.2.1.2.2. LON had to decide if German should rearm or everyone should disarm. People were not keen on either, so Germany left the league out of frustration.

2.2.1.2.3. Failed as BnF were divided on the issue. (Britain anti TOV, France pro)

2.2.1.3. 12. Abyssinia

2.2.1.3.1. I am too lazy to explain, read notes.

2.2.1.3.2. Showed that "collective security" was BS. The LON had failed and BnF couldn't even strengthen their position against Hitler.

3. AIMS OF THE LEAGUE

3.1. discourage agression

3.1.1. 1, 4, 10, 12

3.2. International co-operation

3.2.1. 1, 4, 5, 10, 12

3.3. Improving living and working standards

3.3.1. 2, 6, 7, 8

3.4. encourage disarmament

3.4.1. 3 & 11

4. COLLAPSE OF PEACE

4.1. HITLER

4.1.1. ACTIONS (pre appeasement)

4.1.1.1. 1. REARMAMENT

4.1.1.1.1. Increasing Germany's armed forces by drafting unemployed workers into the army, helping reduce unemployment and strengthening the military. He also reintroduced conscription

4.1.1.2. 2. SAAR PLEBISCITE, 1935

4.1.1.2.1. Vote to vote on if the Saar should return to German rule (90% voted yes, thanks to Goebbels

4.1.1.3. 3. REMILITARISATION OF RHINELAND, 1936

4.1.1.3.1. Moved troops into Germany's Rhineland.

4.1.1.4. 4. SPANISH CIVIL WAR, 1936

4.1.1.4.1. Germany and Italy both helped the rebels, bonding them...

4.1.1.5. 5. THE AXIS 1936

4.1.1.5.1. Italy, Germany, and Japan signing an anti-Comintern to oppose communism, thus forming the Axis alliance

4.1.1.6. 6. ANSCHLUSS, 1938

4.1.1.6.1. Hitler successfully merged Germany and Austria > strengthened Germany

4.1.2. ACTIONS (post appeasement)

4.1.2.1. 7. SUDETENLAND, 1938

4.1.2.1.1. The Munich agreement

4.1.2.1.2. Hitler invading the Sudetenland following the success of Anschluss.

4.1.2.2. 8. CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1939

4.1.2.2.1. German troops took over the rest of Czechoslovakia, and faced no resistance.

4.1.2.2.2. Proved Hitler could not be trusted

4.1.2.2.3. BnF told Hitler that if he invaded Poland, they would declare war on Germany,

4.2. APPEASEMENT

4.2.1. FOR

4.2.1.1. Military reasons

4.2.1.1.1. British army were not strong enough for a war (far weaker than Germany)

4.2.1.2. Economic reasons

4.2.1.2.1. BnF could not afford another war (in debt after WW1 and had huge unemployment)

4.2.1.3. Fear

4.2.1.3.1. Leaders and Citizens both did not want to relive WW1

4.2.1.3.2. Hitler could be a buffer to the threat of communism threat of the USSR

4.2.1.4. Public opinion

4.2.1.4.1. People felt the terms of the TOV were unfair and that if Hitler was appeased he would piss off.

4.2.2. AGAINST

4.2.2.1. Distrust for Hitler

4.2.2.1.1. After everything he did, Hitler said that it was "all he wanted"

4.3. NAZI - SOVIET PACT

4.3.1. Agreement with Stalin that Germany and the USSR would not attack each other, and they would divide Poland between them.

4.3.2. Hitler invaded Poland and war was declared on Germany in Sept 1939.

5. SUMMARY

5.1. Reasons for the International Collapse of peace by 1939

5.1.1. Worldwide economic depression

5.1.1.1. Weakened the LON, destroying the spirit of international co-operation.

5.1.1.2. Made Japan invade Manchuria and Abyssinia

5.1.1.3. Catalysed German rearmament

5.1.2. Appeasemement policty

5.1.2.1. Made Hitler think he could get away with anything, leading him to take gambles.

5.1.2.2. Led Hitler to believe that Britain would not oppose him when he invaded Poland

5.1.2.3. Only necessary bc of depression (weakened BnF)

5.1.3. Failure of the LON

5.1.3.1. failures encouraged Hitlers' aggression, leading him to believe no one would stop him

5.1.3.2. never fulfilled the role of a peacekeeper

5.1.4. Treaty of Versailles

5.1.4.1. TOV made war inevitable

5.1.4.2. Germany would seek revenge, overturn the treaty, and start another war.

5.1.4.3. Added significantly to the tensions

5.1.5. Hitler's actions

5.1.5.1. Commitment to getting land, hatred of communism, and determination to reverse the Versailles settlement led to war.

5.1.5.2. Without LON weakness and shitness of BnF, Hitler would have been forced to follow a more peaceful foreign policy

5.1.6. Nazi-Soviet pact

5.1.6.1. Allowed Hitler to invade as it eliminated his biggest threat (USSR)

5.1.6.2. Only needed bc of Appeasement, as Stalin thought BnF would oppose Hitler

6. ESSAYS ON LON

6.1. To what extent was the League of Nations successful in the 1920s?

6.1.1. 👍🏽 👍🏽 Improved living conditions: (Slavery, Refugees) + econ recovery. 👎🏼 Failed to discourage aggression ( Corfu)

6.2. To what extent was the League of Nations a failure in the 1930s?

6.2.1. 👎🏼 👎🏼 👎🏼 Failed to discourage aggression (Manchuria), collective security failed (Abyssinia), failed to encourage disarmament.

6.3. To what extent was the League of Nations successful in improving people’s lives from 1920-1946?

6.3.1. 👍🏽 👍🏽 Improved living conditions (Slaves, Refugees) 👎🏼 ILO not very successful in improving working conditions

6.4. “The League of Nations was a massive failure.” How far do you agree with this statement?

6.4.1. 👍🏽 Improved living conditions (Refugees + Slaves) 👎🏼 👎🏼 Failed to discourage aggression (Corfu/Manchuria)

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