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1. causes bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture.

2. Causes

2.1. As people age, bone mass is lost faster than it's created.

2.2. How likely you are to develop osteoporosis depends partly on how much bone mass you attained in your youth.

3. Risk factors

3.1. Your sex: The women

3.2. Age: The older

3.3. Race: if you're white or of Asian descent

3.4. Family history

3.5. Body frame size: Men and women with small body

3.6. Sex hormones: Lowered sex hormone levels tend to weaken bone

3.7. Thyroid problems: Too much thyroid hormone

3.8. Other glands

3.9. Low calcium intake

3.10. Eating disorders

3.11. Gastrointestinal surgery.

3.12. Steroids and other medications for Seizures, Gastric reflux, Cancer, Transplant rejection.

3.13. Medical conditions

3.13.1. Celiac disease Inflammatory bowel disease Kidney or liver disease Cancer Multiple myeloma Rheumatoid arthritis

3.14. Sedentary lifestyle.

3.15. Excessive alcohol consumption.

3.16. Tobacco use.

4. Complications

4.1. Bone fractures, particularly in the spine or hip, are the most serious complications of osteoporosis. Spinal fractures can occur even if you haven't fallen. The bones that make up your spine (vertebrae) can weaken to the point of collapsing, which can result in back pain, lost height and a hunched forward posture.

5. Prevention

5.1. Good nutrition and regular exercise are essential for keeping your bones healthy throughout your life. Men and women between the ages of 18 and 50 need 1,000 milligrams of calcium a day.

5.1.1. Sources of calcium Low-fat dairy products Dark green leafy vegetables Canned salmon or sardines with bones Soy products, such as tofu Calcium-fortified cereals and orange juice

5.1.2. Vitamin D Improves the body's ability to absorb calcium and improves bone health in other ways. People can get some of their vitamin D from sunlight

5.1.3. Exercise Exercise can help you build strong bones and slow bone loss