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Nutrition by Mind Map: Nutrition

1. Indications of dietary deficiency

1.1. fatigue

1.2. dizziness

1.2.1. decreased vision

1.3. wt loss

1.4. slow growth

1.5. loss of muscle

1.5.1. muscle twitching

1.6. weakness

1.7. swollen red tongue

1.8. bone loss

1.9. in kids: rickets,

1.10. slow healing

1.11. Skin tenting

2. Teaching about vitamins & minerals

2.1. Can get vitamins and minerals from supplements

2.1.1. fat soluble A,D,E,K D- from the sun vitamin K for clotting, we give to babys when born D and C important for immunity

2.2. Can get vitamins and minerals from food

2.3. vitamins are fat soluble or water soluble

2.3.1. water soluble B and C

2.4. Vitamin C helps in immunity

2.5. deficient electrolytes can affect major organs

2.5.1. potassium- heart

2.5.2. calcium- muscle contraction

3. Teaching about sources of protein

3.1. Teaching about sources of protein

3.2. meat, fish, beans,

3.3. Egg/egg whiite

3.4. all 9 aminos

3.5. complete and incomplete. if no meat in diet a person needs to intake beans and rice to get all aminos

4. Foods containing calcium for osteoporosis intervention

4.1. cheese, yogurt, butter, dark leafy greans like spinach, kale, turnips, and collard greens, fortified cereals like total, raisin bran, corn flakes, orange juice, soybeans

4.2. Recommendations for osteoporosis prevention

4.2.1. depoprovera birthcontrol is a risk factor for osteoporosis

4.2.2. adequate exercise and weight bearing activities help keep bones healthy

4.2.3. medications are a risk factor

5. Foods containing potassium

5.1. bananas

5.2. apricots

5.3. prunes

5.4. spinach

5.5. avocados

6. Teaching about calorie intake

6.1. Caloric content of food

6.2. decreased calories can delay wound healing, affect blood sugar, weight, focus,

6.3. carbs provide energy, simple and complex

7. Heme sources of iron

7.1. beef

7.2. oysters, clams, mussels

7.3. liver

7.4. canned light tuna

7.5. poultry

7.6. canned sardines

7.7. Iron supplements

8. Types of Protein

8.1. storage proteins

8.2. Amino acids

8.3. complete and incomplete

8.4. complete have all aminos, incomplete do not

8.5. help with wound healing

9. Manifestations of Vitamin A Toxicity

9.1. headache

9.2. rash

9.3. Dry skin

9.4. Impaired vision

9.5. Dry eyes

10. nutrition assessment

10.1. water

10.1.1. body needs minimum 1500 mL to replace what its used.

10.1.2. thirst is a late sign of dehydration

10.2. favorites?

10.3. typical days food

10.4. how much of each they mention

10.5. social things like access to transportation, income,

10.6. physical assessment

10.6.1. cachexia-skin thin?

10.6.2. nails

10.6.3. fatigue

10.6.4. enlarged spleen

10.6.5. skin

10.7. labs- nitrogen, albumen, urine output, color, odor

10.8. religious factors

10.9. healthy bmi: 18.5-24.5, overweight 24.5-29.5, obese: over 30

10.10. food preparation: does the patient understand safe food prep, age appropriate foods.

10.10.1. raw chicken, cut grapes for kids

10.10.2. at risk pops for food borne illness: immunocompromised, kids, elderly

11. infants

11.1. breast milk alone for 6 months minimum

11.2. storage of milk

11.3. never boil or microwave

11.4. avoid water tox with distilled water

11.5. low income? are they rationing their formula

11.6. one at a time foods when introducing

12. therapeutic diets

12.1. full liquid

12.2. pureed

12.3. soft-bland low fiber

12.4. mechanical soft

12.5. dysphagia

12.6. clear liquid

12.7. types of people

12.7.1. stroke

12.7.2. extubation

12.7.3. GI patients avoid caffeine gerd colitis n/v/d electrolyte imbalances IV replaces volume pedialyte diverticulitis/osis celiac avoid gluten can have rice

12.7.4. post op

12.7.5. renal patients avoid high protein/phosphorus intake and output

12.8. immunocompromised

12.8.1. consider they are at risk for infection

12.8.2. watch you shelf life on foods

12.8.3. food prep and storage and its source

13. pregnancy

13.1. Folate intake during pregnancy

13.1.1. prevent neural tube defects

13.1.2. 400 mcg a day

13.1.3. deficient can lead to neural tube defect

13.1.4. pregnant women should consume folate-rich foods such as asparagus, spinach and broccoli. Supplemental folic acid may be needed.

13.2. Fiber intake during pregnancy

13.2.1. f

13.2.2. 25- 30 grams per day

13.2.3. prevents constipation during pregnancy can lead to hemorrhoids

13.2.4. sources

13.2.5. second tri bump up calories 340 or 350 calories per day

13.2.6. third tri bump up about 450 calories per day

13.3. Calculating appropriate intake of fat calories per day

13.3.1. About 20% to 35% total calories from fat per day

13.3.2. 9 calories per gram

13.3.3. good and bad fats, LDL, HDL

13.3.4. make up cell walls

13.3.5. hdl removes excess cholesterol, LDL takes cholesterol to the cells

14. Teaching about sources of fiber

14.1. Teaching about sources of fiber

14.1.1. beans brown rice

14.1.2. whole grains

14.1.3. bran cereal

14.1.4. Green leafy vegetables

14.1.5. 28 g for women 38 for men

14.1.6. indigestible, helps with defacation