Intro to Sciences of Hadith

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Intro to Sciences of Hadith by Mind Map: Intro to Sciences of Hadith

1. Hujjiyah As-Sunnah (Authority of Sunnah)

1.1. 1. Allah protected the prophet from committing mistakes or being forgetful

1.2. 2. Allah approves companions' adherence to prophet's sunnah

1.3. 3. Qur'an repeatedly states the authority of the Sunnah

1.4. 4. Sunnah itself stated its own proof

1.4.1. 1. Prophet said that the revelation of the Qur'an is from Allah and not himself

1.4.2. 2. Prophet ordered Muslims to uphold the sunnah and prohibited them from complying only to Qur'anic teachings

1.4.3. 3. Prophet commanded that his message were to be memorized and conveyed to those absent

1.5. 5. Qur'an's dependency over the Sunnah

1.6. 6. What was narrated was either direct revelation or that which was inspired to him SAW

1.7. 7. Evidences supporting each other on the acceptance of the Sunnah from different generations over the Sunnah. They accepted it as a 2nd source of the Shari'ah.

2. Recurrent & Solitary Hadith

2.1. Shafi'i's requirements

2.1.1. trustworthy

2.1.2. understand what he narrates

2.1.3. knows that a different expression can alter the meaning because if he does not know how a different expression can change the whole meaning, he won't know if he has changed what is lawful to the prohibited

2.1.4. can report both the hadith verbatim and its meaning

2.1.5. sharp memory or good preserver of his writings

2.1.6. agree with the narrations of the huffaz (leading authorities in hadith)

2.1.7. should NOT be a mudallis (narrates from someone he met something he did not hear

2.1.8. should NOT report from the prophet s.a.w contrary to what reliable sources have reported from him

2.1.9. the one above him in the isnad should be of the same quality, and so on until the prophet

2.2. Rank of compilations: 1. Bukhari and Muslim (Muttafaqun 'alayhi) 2. Bukhari 3. Muslim 4. complying with criterion by both Bakhari and Muslim, even if they did not mention it in their sahihs. (according to same chain of narrators as in their books) 5. complying with Bukhari's criterion 6. complying with Muslim's criterion 7. other scholars

2.3. Recurrent (Mutawatir) Hadith

2.3.1. Literal: repetition and succession

2.3.2. Technical: hadith narrated by a large number (indefinite) of people that they could not be expected to agree upon a lie together

2.3.3. Conditions 1. large number of narrators. Majority scholars didn't specify a minimum number 2. multiplicity of narrators should remain large throughout the generations of the chain 3. their agreement to perpetuate a lie should be impossible 4. the narration should be based on sense perception, such as hearing from the prophet or viewing his action

2.3.4. Value 1. Engenders certainty and definitive knowledge 2. Authenticity is confirmed, hence no need to search for liability of narrators 3. Denial of it leads to kufr. Its legal authority is the same as Qur'an

2.3.5. Classification Verbal recurrent (mutawatir al-lafazi) Has been reported on the exact same words in all different chains Conceptual recurrent (mutawatir al-ma'nawi) The narration that came through different literal reports but has the same meaning.

2.3.6. Examples "one who lies about me deliberately must prepare himself for a seat in the hell-fire" hadith of the intercession hadith that Allah S.W.T will be seen in the Hereafter hadith of the water-basin of the prophet in the Hereafter hadith of raising hands at the beginning of prayer

2.4. Solitary (Ahad) Hadith

2.4.1. Literal: one

2.4.2. Technical: hadith narrated by one, two or more, which has yet to fulfil the conditions of the mutawatir

2.4.3. Value 1. Indicates possibility rather than accuracy 2. Could be authentic, agreeable, weak or forgery 3. If requirements are met, acting upon it is obligatory. But its denial is not kufr.

2.4.4. Majority of sunnahs belong to solitary hadith.

2.4.5. Classification 1. Number of people 1. Al-Gharib (the strange) 2. Al-Aziz (Strong) 3. Al-Mashhur (the well known) 4. Al-Mustafid 2. Quality of narrators 1. Hadith Qudsi (Holy) 2. Al-Marfu' (Elevated) 3. Mawquf (Suspended) 4. Al-Maqtu' (Disconnected) 3. Strength & Weakness 1. Al-Maqbul (Acceptable hadith) 2. Al-Mardud (Rejected hadith)

3. Relation of Sunnah to Qur'an

3.1. 1. Sunnah's confirmation and support to the Qur'anic principles and laws.

3.2. 2. Sunnah's interpretation and elaboration of the Qur'anic concise and ambivalent phrases.

3.2.1. to detail the concise or ambivalent (Mujmal)

3.2.2. to clarify the obscure and ambigous

3.2.3. to limit the absolute

3.2.4. to specify the general statements of the Qur'an

3.2.5. to enact new branch of teachings from the Qur'an's original foundation

3.3. 3. Sunnah's additional dogmatic and legal issues about which the Qur'an is silent about

3.3.1. Independent legislation of Sunnah

3.3.2. Additional legal rules