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Lung Cancer by Mind Map: Lung Cancer
5.0 stars - 3 reviews range from 0 to 5

Lung Cancer

- malignant neoplasm - cell divide and grow uncontrollably - Mass and ulcerate

Risk factors

Exposure to carcinogen

Environmental and Occupational Exposure, Radon gas, Industrial Carcinogens, arsenic, asbestos, mustard gas, chromates, coke oven fumes, nickel, oil, radiation

Tobacco Smoke

Secondhand Smoke

Clinical manifestation

Physical: depends on location size

Local and regional, Bronchus, Persistent dry cough / change in chronic cough (65 - 75%), Dyspnea (60%), due to, Loss of alveolar structure, Airflow Obstruction, Decreased oxygen perfusion, wheezing, Hemoptysis / blood-streaked sputum, Pneumonia, recurrent fever, Pleura, pleuritic pain, Pleural effusion, Supervior vena cava syndrome (edema in face, neck and shoulders), Compression on Superior vena cava, Compression of the brachial plexus, Pancoast's syndrome (Shoulder or arm pain), Compression on laryngeal nerve, hoarseness, dysphagia

Metastasis, Brain involvement, headaches, decreased mental capacity, seizures, encephalopathy, Bone involvement, Bone Pain (VERY PAINFUL), Liver involvement, Abdominal pain, Jaundice, Ascites, Adrenal gland

Non-specific, fatigue (weakness), Anorexia, Weight loss, Cachexia







TNM, T, Tx, Primary tumor cannot be assessed, T0, No evidence of primary tumor, Tis, Carcinoma in situ, T1, T2, T3, T4, Increasing size and/or local extent of Primary tumor, N, Nx, Cannot be assessed, N0, No regional lymph node metastasis, N1, N2, N3, increasing involvement of regional lymph nodes, M, Mx, Distant metastasis cannot be assessed, M0, No distant metastasis, M1, Distant metastasis


Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (80%), Adenocarcinoma (40%), Large cell carcinoma (15%), Squamous cell carcinoma (20-30%)

Small Cell Lung Cancer (20%)



Carcinogen binds to and damages cell's DNA, Cellular change and abnormal cell growth, malignant cell, Spread, Lymphatic spread, Hematogenous Spread, Angiogenesis, Invasion



Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan

Chest x ray

Cytologic Examination

Sputum x cytology

Fine-needle aspiration under CT-guidance

Fiberoptic Bronchscopy

Blood Test

Tumor Marker, Carcinoembyronic Antigen (CEA)


Surgical Management (for localized non-small cell)

Types, Lobectomy, Bilobectomy, Sleeve resection, Pneumonectomy, Segmentectomy, Wedge resection, Chest wall resection

Radiation Therapy

Types, Internal, Brachytherapy, External, External beam radiation therapy

Side effect, Skin Reaction, Erythema, dry desquamation, moist desquamation, ulceration


Choice of drug depends on, the growth of the tumor cell, the specific phase of the cell cycle that the medication affects

Mechanism, alter tumor growth patterns

Indication, Distant metastases, Small cell lung cancer

Can be used as, Adjunct therapy with

Common Side effect, Hypersensitivity reactions, Nausea, Vomiting, Alopecia, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, Pancytopenia, increased risk of infection, increased risk of bleeding, anemia, Heart failure


Relieving breathing problems

Breathing Techniques, Pursed lip breathing, Diaphragmatic Breathing

Positioning, Fowler's position, Tripod position


Energy conversation and work simplification

Environmental adjustment

Nutritional Management, Mealtime and food pattern, Calories and nutrients

Relaxation Technique

Reduce fatigue

Exercise, Moderate physical exercise (50% - 90% of estimated max. heart rate), Promotes the efficient use of oxygen, Lowers resting heart rate & Blood pressure, Increases flexibility, Increases muscle and bone strength, Promote more restful sleep, Decrease detrimental stress, Increase sense of well being, self-esteem, self-efficacy and sense of being in control and quality of life

Pharmacological approaches, Erythropoietin

Adjustment strategies, Organization and planning of pleasurable activities and necessary tasks, delegation to family members and willing helpers, Priorities setting, Sleep and rest balanced with activity, Improve sleep quality, sleep routine, better sleep environment, managing stress and anxiety, avoiding caffeine, Balanced diet, Restorative activity, Activities which result in a person feeling mentally restored

Psychological support

Facilitating expression of individual experiences

Patient empowerment


Smoking prevention

once someone quits smoking, the risk gradually declines.

Smoking cessation

Reducing tobacco exposure

Anatomy and Physiology