Cultural Anthropology

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Cultural Anthropology by Mind Map: Cultural Anthropology

1. Anthropology in a Global Age

1.1. Ethnocentrism

1.1.1. "The belief that one's own culture or way of life is normal and natural; using one's own culture to evaluate or judge the practices and ideals of others." (Guest,9)

1.2. Holism

1.2.1. "...anthropology's commitment to look at the whole picture of human life..." (Guest, 12)

1.3. Anthropology

1.3.1. Physical Anthropology: "...sometimes called biological anthropology, is the study of humans from a biological perspective..." (Guest, 12)

1.3.1.1. Paleoanthropology

1.3.1.2. Primatology

1.3.2. Achaeology: "The investigation of the human past by means of excavation and analyzing artifacts." (Guest, 14)

1.3.2.1. Pre-historic Archaeology: Distant past.

1.3.2.2. Historic Archaeology: More recent past.

1.3.3. Linguistic Anthropology

1.3.4. Cultural Anthropology

1.4. Time-space compression

1.4.1. "...the rapid innovation of communication and transportation technologies... [and how it has]... transformed the way we think about space (distance) and time." (Guest, 18)

2. Culture

2.1. Norms

2.1.1. "...idea's or rules abou thow people should behave in particular situations or toward certain other people..." (Guest, 37)

2.2. Symbols

2.2.1. "...is something that stands for something else." (Guest, 39)

2.3. Mental Maps of Reality

2.3.1. "These are 'maps' that humans construct of what kinds of people and what kinds of things exist" (Guest, 42)

2.4. Stratification

2.4.1. "...uneven distribution of resources and privileges..." (Guest, 48)

2.5. Nature vs. Nurture

2.5.1. "Popular American discourse often assigns biology-and usually genes-the primary role is determining who we are. Anthripological research, however, consistently reveals the powerful role culture and environment play in shaping our lives and bodies." (Guest, 53)

2.6. Hegemony

2.6.1. "The ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force." (Guest, 50)

2.7. Agency

2.7.1. "The potential power of individuals and groups to contest cultural norms, values, mental maps of reality, symbols, institutions, and structures of power." (Guest, 52)

3. Human Origins

3.1. Deep Time

3.1.1. "A framework for considering the same span of human history within the much larger age of the universe and planet Earth" (Guest, 155)

3.2. Fossils

3.2.1. A fossil is "...the remains of the organisms that have been preserved through the natural chemical process that turns them partially or wholly into rock..." (Guest, 158)

3.3. Theory of Evolution

3.3.1. "The theory that biological adaptions in organisms occur in response to changes in the natural environment and develop in populations and over generations." (Guest, 161)

3.4. Creationism

3.4.1. Intelligent Design is "...an updated version of creationsim that claims to propose an evidence-based argument to contradict the theory of evolution." (Guest, 163)

3.5. How Does Evolution Work?

3.5.1. Natural Selection: "...occurs when individuals within a population have certain characteristics that provide an advantage that enables them to survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other in the population." (Guest, 165)

3.5.2. Mutation: "A deviation from the standard DNA code." (Guest, 167)

3.5.3. Gene Flow: "The movement of genetic material within a population and among diverse populations." (Guest, 167)

3.5.4. Genetic Drift: "...the fourth force of evolution, is the random, unpredictable changes in gene frequencies in a population from one generation to the next." (Guest, 168)

3.6. Bipedalism

3.6.1. "...(walking on two feet rather than all four limbs)..." (Guest, 170)

3.7. Human Ancestory

3.7.1. Pre-Australopithecus

3.7.1.1. Ardipithecus Kadabba (5.8 mya)

3.7.1.2. Ardipithecus Ramidus (4.4 mya)

3.7.2. Australopithecus (Between 4-1 mya)

3.7.3. Homo Habilis (2.5 mya)

3.7.4. Homo Erectus (Between 1.8 mya-300,000 yBP)

3.7.5. Homo Sapiens (Between 500,000-350,000 yBP)

3.8. "Out of Africa" or Replacement Theory

3.8.1. "The theory that modern Homo sapiens evolved first in Africa, migrated outward, and eventually replaced the archaic Homo sapiens." (Guest, 176)

3.9. Adaptions

3.9.1. Developmental Adaptions "...begin in the womb and continue through the human growth cycle, influenced by nutrition, disease, and other environemntal factors." (Guest, 180)

3.9.2. Genetic Adaption "...occurs at the populatio nlevel as a result of natural selection." (Guest, 180)

3.9.3. Acclimatization occurs "...every day as our bodies make temporary adjustments to changes in the environment." (Guest, 181)

3.9.4. Cultural Adaption is "...complex innovation, such as fans, furnaces, and lights, that allows humans to cope with their environment." (Guest, 182)