Reference and Inference

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Reference and Inference by Mind Map: Reference and Inference

1. Reference is the action of: the speaker selects an entity & appropriate linguistic forms which help the addressee to infer what or which entity the speaker had in mind.

1.1. Referencing expressions:

1.1.1. Proper Nouns

1.1.2. Pronouns

1.1.3. Definite Noun Phrases

1.1.4. Indefinite Noun Phrases

1.2. REFERRING EXPRESSIONS: Attribute uses or Referential uses

1.2.1. Referential Use one specifc entity There’s a man waiting for you.

1.2.2. Attributive Use whatever/ whoever fits the description He wants to marry a woman with lots of money

1.3. the use of NAMES

1.3.1. Convention between all members of a cultural/language community: collaboration of the intention to identify and the recognition of intention Shakespeare, the man vs Shakespeare, the book

2. Inference: The listener's task is to infer correctly which entity the speaker intends to identify by using a particular referring expression.

3. Co-text and Context

3.1. Co-text

3.1.1. linguistic part of the environment in which a referring expression is used.

3.1.2. Referring expressions may have a range of references. Cotext limits the range of possible interpretations. 1. Brazil wins World Cup. 2. Japan wins first round of trade talks.

3.2. Context

3.2.1. physical environment and (speech) conventions. The heart-attack mustn't be moved. (hospital)

4. Anaphoric Reference

4.1. Pronouns

4.2. Defining Noun Phrases

4.2.1. the car which I bought yesterday

4.3. Ellipsis

4.3.1. boil for 2 hours.