Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. Cognitivism

1.1. Definition of Learning

1.1.1. A learning theory that was created in response to behaviorism. Behaviorism failed to explain cognition, according to psychologists. Cognitivism focuses on how information is received, organized, stored, and retrieved by the mind.

1.2. Major Principles

1.2.1. Mind is an information processor.

1.2.2. Emphasizes understanding the concept as a whole rather than just its pieces.

1.2.3. Student takes an active role on learning.

1.2.4. Students are taught to do something and then build on prior knowledge.

1.2.5. Well-suited for problem solving

1.2.5.1. STEM

1.3. Instructional Applications

1.3.1. Beginning a lesson with a hook to create interest

1.3.2. Review quizzes promotes prior learning.

1.3.3. Using learning outcomes

1.3.4. Grouping content into organized small pieces.

1.3.5. Using graphic organizers

1.3.6. Teaches give lots of encouragement and positive feedback.

1.4. Uses of Technology

1.4.1. Online games like puzzle sorting

1.4.2. Quizlet

2. Behaviorism

2.1. Definition of Learning

2.1.1. Theory of learning that believes learning occurs through teachers' rewards and punishments lead to changes in behavior.

2.2. Major Principles

2.2.1. People learn through repetition.

2.2.2. Learner is a passive blank slate shaped by environmental stimuli, both positive and negative reinforcement.

2.2.3. Conditioning

2.2.3.1. Conditioning is a form of learning in which either (1) a given stimulus (or signal) becomes increasingly effective in evoking a response or (2) a response occurs with increasing regularity in a well-specified and stable environment. The type of reinforcement used will determine the outcome.

2.3. Instructional Applications

2.3.1. Sequence in which skills are taught is of high importance.

2.3.2. Specific directions are given by instructor.

2.3.3. Opportunities for learner responses are fast-paced.

2.3.4. Use of prompts (gestural, physical, and verbal)

2.3.4.1. Informational feedback and consequences (positive and negative)

2.4. Uses of Technology

2.4.1. direct instruction/lectures vis zoom, powerpoints, etc.

2.4.2. Use of behavioral reward system

2.4.2.1. Class Dojo

2.4.2.2. Behavior bucks

3. Constructivism

3.1. Definition of Learning

3.1.1. This theory is based on the concept that people actively construct their own knowledge, and that reality is determined by your own experiences as a learner. Learners use their previous knowledge as a foundation and build on it with new things that they learn. This theory was created by Jean Piaget.

3.2. Major Principles

3.2.1. Students learn new things through experiences.

3.2.2. Students build on knowledge through experiences and interactions.

3.2.3. Students are encouraged to discover something on their own. This is known as self-directed learning.

3.2.4. Students build new ideas and concepts based on their own discoveries.

3.3. Instructional Applications

3.3.1. Students are given an item, like blocks, and are not given specific instructions. This promotes students to use their creativity.

3.3.2. There is a focus on real-world scenarios to give context and practical application to students.

3.3.3. Every stage needs to have dialogue. This will provide students with the opportunity to discuss questions and receive peer feedbacl.

3.3.3.1. Teachers pose questions instead of answers.

3.3.4. Some activities can be supplemented by using a time limit.

3.4. Uses of Technology

3.4.1. Research projects

3.4.1.1. Allow students to chose what they would like to research, do not assign.

3.4.2. Mind mapping

3.4.3. Field Trips

3.4.4. Collaborative class activities

3.4.4.1. Class whiteboards or sticky notes

3.4.5. Google education apps

3.4.5.1. Provide a way for students to view and collaborate through technology at the same time.

4. Social Learning Theory

4.1. Definition of Learning

4.1.1. Vygotsky's theory argues that community and language plays a central part in learning. He believed that children develop independently of specific ages as a direct result of social interactions.

4.2. Major Principles

4.2.1. We are born with four elementary mental functions.

4.2.1.1. Attention

4.2.1.2. Sensation

4.2.1.3. Perceptiion

4.2.1.4. Memory

4.2.2. Our ability use these four mental functions is dependent on one's social and cultural environment in order to develop and gain higher mental function.

4.2.3. First, there is what we can accomplish on our own

4.2.3.1. Second, there is the zone of proximal development, which is what we can do with the help of an adult, friend, or technology. This idea of learning from another is known as the "more knowledgeable other."

4.2.3.1.1. Beyond this point is known as what is beyond our reach.

4.3. Instructional Applications

4.3.1. Collaboration on activities while sharing and discussing concepts they have learned.

4.3.2. Teachers show students an example before sending students onto the activity.

4.3.2.1. This theory is often seen in physical education classes.

4.3.2.2. You are taught new skills by watching the instructor or your peers or teacher participate in an example before playing.

4.3.2.2.1. Ex. When learning how to swing a bat, the instructor will show you the proper technique by teaching you the dynamics of a good swinging and then provide an example.

4.3.3. Real-world applications

4.3.3.1. This is often seen is science classes.

4.3.3.1.1. For example, doing a scientific experiment or observational study

4.4. Uses of Technology

4.4.1. Rather than students listening to a lecture, students are provided with video homework assignments to be watched outside of class.

4.4.1.1. The following day the student come to class to apply their learning through peer discussion.

4.4.2. Simulations or games

4.4.3. Interaction with peers' work

4.4.3.1. This can easily be seen through how we give feedback on peer's blog posts through our wix sites.

4.4.3.2. This learning theory was developed by George Siemens and Steven Downs. It stresses the importance of connections and combinational creativity. It suggests that students should use thoughts, theories, and general information together. It also stresses the importance of a learning community.

5. Connectivism

5.1. Definition of Learning

5.2. Major Principles

5.2.1. This learning theory has been developed recently for modern-day use. It is commonly known as the learning theory for the 21st century.

5.2.1.1. Highly utilizes technology, which most children and teachers are familiar with.

5.2.2. Takes into account trends in learning, the use of technology, and the diminishing half-life of knowledge.

5.2.3. A learning community is described as a node. A learning network is the nodes coming together to form a mass of intelligence.

5.2.3.1. "A community is the clustering of similar areas of interest that allows for interaction, sharing, dialoguing, and thinking together.

5.3. Instructional Applications and the Uses of Technology

5.3.1. Technology and internet is heavily ingrained into instruction.

5.3.1.1. More digital learning opportunities are introduced.

5.3.1.1.1. Online courses

5.3.1.1.2. Webinars

5.3.1.1.3. Social Media

5.3.1.1.4. Blogs

5.3.1.1.5. Google applications like Google Classrooms

5.3.1.2. Uses technology as a way to provide more independence to the student in order to create their own learning experience.

5.3.1.3. Use of classroom social media/messaging platform to share discussions, announcements, information, and assignments with students, as well as parents.

5.3.1.3.1. Class Dojo

5.3.1.3.2. Remind

5.3.1.4. Competitive games to promote interaction while keeping things fun

5.3.1.4.1. Quizlet Live

5.3.1.4.2. Kahoot

5.3.1.5. Simulations

5.3.2. This theory promotes individual perspectives and the diversity of opinions.

5.3.3. Allows more time in the classroom by allowing students to access and work on assignments from home.