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Foundation block by Mind Map: Foundation block
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Foundation block

KEY Pink font: no objectives specifiedwhite: not in the midtermOrange: included in the OSCEBlue: assignment required(-/): lecture available in dropbox (riyadh or jeddah)(IC): incomplete

Anatomy

1: Introduction to Anatomy

General anatomical terms, planes, movements and structures. The basic language used to identify structures (or parts thereof), their functions and their relationships with other structures in the body.

2: Introduction to Skin, Bones, Joints and Skeletal Muscles

General anatomical organization of skin, bones, joints and skeletal muscles

3: Introduction to Arteries, Veins and Lymphatics

General anatomical structure and organization of arteries, veins and lymphatics 

4: Introduction to Viscera, Smooth & Cardiac Muscle

General anatomical structure and organization of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and viscera. Aim An introduction to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and viscera. Content • The general differences in structure, function and location of cardiac and smooth muscle • Viscera (hollow/solid, sphincters/obstruction of hollow viscera, endocrine & exocrine glands) General location of viscera within different body systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary) Structure and function of serous membranes (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum) The nerve supply to viscera (sympathetic, parasympathetic, visceral afferents)

5: Introduction to Trunk

General anatomical structure and organization of the trunk - the structures and make-up of the thorax and abdomen.

6: Introduction to Head and Neck

General anatomical structure and organization of the head and neck - the general framework of the bones, muscles, organs, blood and nerve supply.

7: Introduction to Central Nervous System

General anatomical structure and organization of the central nervous system; from spinal cord to cortex. Key features of neural cells and what makes them special. 

8: Introduction to Peripheral Nervous System

General anatomical organisation of the peripheral nervous system; the nerves and plexuses. Key features of peripheral cells and the formation of plexuses. The main dermatomes and myotomes, how they develop and why they are important. The concept of referred pain 

9: Introduction to Limbs

Objective: General anatomical organization of the limbs, the framework of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, arteries and nerves. The organization of block 1

10: Upper Limb: Bones and Joints

Objective: Detailed anatomical organization of the bones and joints of the upper limb. The movements at each joint - shoulder, elbow, wrist and those in hand. Aim An overview of the bones and joints of the upper limb. Content • The bones of the upper limb including their structure, relationships and function. • The joints of the upper limb including their structure, relationships and function.

11: Upper Limb: Shoulder and Arm Muscles

Objective: Detailed anatomical organization of the muscles of the shoulder and arm; their attachments and functions. The functions for each individual muscle and its action on the major joints, namely shoulder, elbow, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular. Aim An overview of the muscles of the forearm. Content • • • • The muscles of the forearm region including their structure, relationships and function. The muscles of the hand region including their structure, relationships and function. The connective tissues of the hand. The topographical relationships of the forearm and hand

12: Upper limb: Forearm and Hand Muscles

Objective: Detailed anatomical organization of the muscles of the forearm and hand; their attachments and functions. The action of each muscle on the major joints, for example, elbow, wrist, and those in the hand. Aim • An introduction to the organisation of the muscles of the upper limb, shoulder and arm Content • Students should be able to describe the general attachments and actions of the following muscle groups: • Rotator Cuffs: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis • Shoulder: pectoralis major et minor, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboids, teres major, deltoid • Arm; biceps, triceps, coracobrachialis, brachialis

13: Upper limb: Vessels

Objective: Detailed anatomical organisation of the blood vessels of the upper limb, their major course and innervations.

14: Upper limb: Nerves (+ Lesions)

Objective: Aim • To present an overview of the nerves of the upper limb. Content • • • • The structure and relationships of the plexuses of the upper limb. The course, relationships and structures supplied for the major nerves of the upper limb. A general description of a peripheral nerve lesion. Examples of upper limb peripheral nerve lesions.

Histology

Histology 1: Introduction to Cells and tissues

General histological organization of cells and tissues found in the body 

Histology 2: Epithelial Tissue

General histological organization of cells and tissues found in the body 

3: Connective Tissue and Muscle

General histological organization and different types of connective tissue and muscle.

4: Vessels – Arteries, Veins, Lymphatics; Nerves

General histological organization of lymph,blood vessels and nerve tissue in body.

5: Organization of Tissue – Gastrointestinal Tract

General histological organization of Gastrointestinal Tract in body

Physiology

1: Homeostasis and its Control Mechanisms

Key concepts of homeostasis and their application to the regulation of body temperature and plasma osmolarity

2: Biological Membranes and their Role in Cellular Homeostasis

Mechanisms that regulate and maintain intracellular homeostasis.

3: Intracellular Signal Transduction

Mechanisms for intracellular communication, using illustrative examples.

4: Intercellular Communication

Key mechanisms for intercellular communication, using illustrative examples Aim To explain key mechanisms for intercellular communication and examine illustrative examples. Content • • • • • • • Distinguish between electrical and chemical signalling and identify an example of each Distinguish between endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signalling and identify an example of each Describe the ionic signalling processes that occur at the neuromuscular junction and apply them to the mechanisms by which botulinum toxin, myasthenia gravis and organophosphates affect neuromuscular transmission Describe the molecular basis of electrical excitability Describe the molecular basis of nerve conduction and apply it to the mechanisms by which tetrodotoxin affects nerve conduction. Appreciate the effects of myelination and of fibre diameter on conduction rate Appreciate the features of hormonal signalling as illustrated by the regulation of plasma glucose levels by insulin

5: Pregnancy

Objective: Principle maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy

6: Growth and Division of Cells, The Cell Cycle

Objective: Processes involved in cell division and growth, with reference to key mechanisms for normal and disordered events in the cell cycle. Aim To explain the processes of cell division and growth, with reference to key mechanisms for normal and disordered events in the cell cycle. Content • • • • • • major events of the cell mammalian cell cycle roles of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in driving the cell cycle restriction point, the G1/S and the G2/M check points role of growth factors and other environmental factors in regulating entry to and exit from cell proliferation importance of disordered signalling in driving cancer cell cycles (c-abl and CML, oestrogens, Epidermal Growth Factor and breast cancer) role of apoptosis as a mechanism for correcting errors and regulating cell numbers

Genetic medicine

1: Chromosome and Cell Genetics

Basic concepts of the cell cycle and nuclear events, mitosis and meiosis. The methods for visualisation of chromosomes in cell division, together with the advanced methods for high resolution in premetaphase (using example of Prader-Willi syndrome). Aim Cell cycle and nuclear events Methods for visualization of chromosomes in cell division Mitosis, DNA replication, anaphase, prophase metaphase, interphase Meiosis I & II – timing in - reproductive cycle in males and females - Crossing over/recombination • Advanced methods for high resolution in premetaphase - Karyotyping - FISH - Chromosome Painting - Comparative Genomic Hybridisation - Array CGH • Basic example - Prader-Willi syndrome - FISH - Deletion/duplication by array CGH

2: Principles of Molecular Genetics

Overall genetic paradigm DNA, RNA, Protein, the chemical nature of DNA, the organisation of the double helix, the mechanisms of transcription and translation, the significance of the genetic code, the different types of mutations, and finally, the concept of protein misfolding. Aim Genetic Paradigm DNA→RNA→Protein Chemical Nature of DNA Double Helix Genes and Chromosomes Transcription Translation Genetic Code Types of mutations/silent, nonsense, missense Protein misfolding

4: Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Genetic Disorders

Objective: Aim Epidemiology of Genetic Disorders Levels of Treatment - The Family - Clinical Phenotype - Biochemical Disorders - Mutant Protein - Mutant Gene • Triplet mutations • Ethical dilemmas in Treatment of Genetic Disorders • Basic Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Strategies (2-3 slides)

Dentistry

1: Dental Infection

Principles of pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontitis. The main clinical manifestations of dental infection in terms of underlying pathophysiological processes. Aim • • • Principles of the pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontitis will be outlined, as will the main clinical manifestations of dental infection in terms of underlying patho- physiological processes. In particular, the nature of dental plaque and its role in caries development, as well as the progressive spread of infection from the surface of the tooth to the pulp, periapical tissues and then soft tissues. The systemic effects of this will be outlined, while the development of chronic periodontitis will also be discussed. Attention will be drawn to the basic principles of inflammation using dental infection as an example.

2: Oral health

Major oral diseases and their distribution in the Saudi population. The disparities in oral disease burden between different demographic groups and the current evidence linking oral and systemic disease. The major challenges facing the prevention and management of oral disease in Saudi Arabia. Aim • • • • • • The major oral diseases and their distribution in the Saudi population. The disparities in oral disease burden between different demographicgroups. The current evidence linking oral and systemic disease. Examples will include cardiovascular disease, obesity, preterm birth and certain cancers. The oral disease burden in the medically compromised. The major challenges facing the prevention and management of oral disease in Saudi Arabia. The main approaches for prevention, including fluoridation, personal oral hygiene, fissure sealants and surgical intervention. Emphasis will be on the need for an informed preventive strategy tailored to the needs of the patient.

Themes

Integrative Theme

1: Integrative Medicine

2: Cervical cancer

3: The Software: Genetic Information – its Expression and Variation

4: Medical Implications of Dental and Oral Disease

5: What is PBL?

6: HIV and Health

Personal and profissional development theme

1: introduction to PPD

2: Careers in Medicine

3: Presentation skills for OSCE

4: Ethical Dilemmas in Neonatology

Community doctor theme

1: Introduction to Community & Doctor Theme, Assignment

2: Multicultural Issues in Health Delivery, Assignment

3: Debate: Health Care for the Elderly, Assignment

4: Introduction to Epidemiology, Assignment

Evidence based medicine

1: Introduction to EBM

2: PICO

Basic and clinical sciences (OSPE)

Introduction to Anatomy: Bones, Joints, Muscles

Introduction to Cells, Epithelial Tissues

Introduction to Anatomy: Viscera, Vessels and Lymphatics

Connective Tissue and Muscle

Introduction to Microbiology: It’s a Small World

Introduction to Anatomy: Head and Trunk

Vessels

Introduction to Microbiology 2: It’s a Small World

Introduction to Anatomy: Nervous System

Organization of Tissues

Depression

Upper Limb: Bones and Joints

Acute Inflammation

Principles of Nutrition

Upper limb: Shoulder and Arm Muscles

Viruses and Virology

Upper Limb: Forearm and Hand Muscles

Genes and Mutations

Cancer

Investigating Infection and Immunity to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Antibodies: Applications in Clinical Immunology

Upper Limb: Vessels

Atherosclerosis

Upper limb: Nerves (+Lesions)

Chronic Inflammation

Patient and Doctor Tutorials

Communication skills

Introduction & Orientation to History Taking

Empathy, Rapport & Non-judgmental Interviewing

Structure of the Medical History and Listening Skills

paediatric history taking

Interviewing with feedback

Procedural skills

Introduction to the Hospital

Height, Weight, & Waist Circumference (BMI)

infection control general concepts, gowning and hand washing

Clinical Diagnostics Skills

Introduction & Orientation to Physical Examination

Respiratory examination

Cardiovascular examination

Abdominal examination

Psychological Medicine

1: Ordinary Madness

Objective: Defining the meaning of psychiatry, cinematic interlude and psychotic and anxiety disorders.

2: Mental Illness

Objective: Widespread nature of mental illness in the community, the range of psychotic illness in the community and some basic symptoms of psychosis. The plasticity of the brain and changes in both function and structure that mental effort causes.

Embryology

1: Early Human Embryonic Development

Objective: Major stages of early development of the human embryo 

2: Birth Defects

Objective: Major defects associated with the developing embryo during pregnancy 

Geriatrics

1: Successful Ageing

Objective: Aim Rather than addressing the age-old dichotomy between "biologically normal ageing" on the one hand and "disease" on the other. The aim of this lecture is to define a relatively new and highly practical approach to human ageing; ie the distinction between successful and unsuccessful ageing and how to bring this about. Content Students should be able to: • • • • • • • • Define successful ageing and understand the current models and approaches. Describe how we measure successful ageing. Understand the difference between maximum lifespan and life expectancy, and how these have changed (or not) over the years, and be aware of the Saudi demography. Describe biological and cellular theories of ageing. Describe genetic and environmental protective factors for successful ageing and also the risk factors for unsuccessful ageing, their interactions and effects. Understand the aims of health promotion and public health intervention. Understand the concept of “compression of morbidity”, and whether this has been proven around the world and in Saudi Arabia. Understand why are older people "at risk" in our hospitals and health care system. Understand the concepts of threshold, failure of homeostasis and the resulting syndromes of Geriatric Medicine, also called the “Giants of Geriatric Medicine”.

Pathology

1: Homeostasis – The Balance between Health and Disease – Stress, Adaptation, Injury and Death

Basic principles underlying the processes of cellular injury, adaptation (atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, metaplasia), ageing, and the two chief mechanisms leading to cell death (necrosis and apoptosis).

2: Tissue Renewal and Repair

Major processes of tissue renewal and repair in the body. Aim An introduction into the processes of tissue renewal and repair Content • • • • • the control mechanisms that exist in normal cellular proliferation and tissue growth the basic cell cycle and the concept of the stem cells soluble factors and signalling mechanisms for growth the role and significance of the extracellular matrix and the overall process of angiogenesis fundamental concepts of regeneration, healing, scar formation/fibrosis

3: Pathology/Laboratory Medicine

Significance and the process of Anatomical Pathology and Laboratory Diagnostics. Aim • The students to understand the role of Pathology in the diagnosis and management of disease. Content anatomical pathology chemical pathology hematology microbiology/immunology genetics

4: Acute Inflammation

Objective: Role of acute inflammation in normality anddisease, the cellular and soluble componentsassociated with and that produce inflammationand finally, the outcomes and controlmechanisms of inflammation.

5: Neoplasia

Objective: Meaning of neoplasia and nomenclature of tumours, the similarities and differences between benign and malignant tumours, the mechanism of underlying neoplastic transformation and accumulation of genetic damage, the basic morphology of tumours, both in macroscopic and microscopic terms, the mechanism underlying metastasis and finally, the overall risk factors for cancer. Aim • An introduction into the concept of neoplasia Content • • • • • • meaning of neoplasia and nomenclature of tumours similarities and differences between benign and malignant tumours mechanism of underlying neoplastic transformation and accumulation of genetic damage basic morphology of tumours, both in macroscopic and microscopic terms mechanism underlying metastasis the overall risk factors for cancer

6: Chronic Inflammation

Objective: Role of chronic inflammation in normality and disease, the cellular and soluble components associated with and that produce inflammation and finally, the outcomes and control mechanisms of inflammation.

Pharmacology

1: What is Pharmacology?

Relationship between the science of pharmacology, the discipline of clinical pharmacology and the scientific basis of rational prescribing of medications.

2: How Drugs Work

Diversity of mechanisms by which drugs can have beneficial effects in treating human disorders.

3: Quantization of Drug Effects

Concepts of dose-response, antagonism and the associated metrics such as EC50 and ED.

4: Metabolism of Drugs

Mechanisms by which the body absorbs and metabolises drugs and the potential for disease states (or other drugs) to compromise the body's drug metabolising capacity. Aim • To examine the mechanisms by which the body absorbs & metabolises drugs and the potential for disease states (or other drugs) to compromise the body’s drug metabolising capacity. Content Students should be able to explain the role and effects of the following on drug metabolism: the mechanism of liver metabolism of drugs cytochrome (CYP) P450 genetic polymorphism of CYPs drug metabolism as a basis for drug interactions routes of drug administration and absorption

5: Clinical Effects of Drugs – Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics

Objective: Assessment of drug effects in patients. The circumstances where measurement of drug concentrations in the blood may assist in optimizing drug dosing.

6: Adverse Reactions to Drugs (ADRs)

Objective: Issues underlying adverse events (AEs) associated with drug administration and the clinical management of drug overdose.

7: Non-medical use of Drugs

Objective: Aim To describe the use and abuse of legal and illicit drugs for non-medical purposes. To explain what is known about the associated dependency and psycho-active properties of these drugs. Content Students should be able to outline the non –medical use of the following substances, including their psycho-active properties: alcohol nicotine opiates amphetamines & related substances cannabis

Biochemistry

1: Major Nutrients and Nutrient Sensing Systems

Major nutrients and nutrient-sensing systems; significance of lipids, carbohydrates, oligo- and disaccharides, monosaccharides and proteins and amino acids and the control of digestion, absorption, appetite and satiety (together with the hormonal control of nutrient disposal and storage).

2: Metabolic Pathways for the Conversion of Major Nutrients to Usable Energy

Metabolic pathways converting nutrients to energy, for example, the anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of glucose, fatty acid oxidation and the concept and function of ATP. 

3: The role of Oxygen in Making Energy Available from Major Nutrients

Mechanisms by which oxygen makes energy from nutrients.

4: DNA & RNA Structure: Why solving the double helix structure of DNA was so revolutionary

The evidence that DNA is the "genetic material“ and that bacteriophage DNA changes the morphology/phenotype of bacterial cells. The purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides, the constraints used to model the structure of DNA, the identity of genes and the genetic code. Aim Evidence that DNA is the "genetic material" Bacteriophage DNA changes the morphology/phenotype of bacterial cells Early ideas on the nature of genes and gene copying: a "complementary surface" Chemical analysis demonstrates that DNA is made from building blocks that include: two types of organic base* (purines and pyrimidines) as well as 2-deoxyribose and inorganic phosphate The two Purines of DNA: Adenine; Guanine The two Pyrimidines of DNA: Cytosine and Thymine Nucleosides and Nucleotides Constraints used to model the structure of DNA: A sugar-phosphate backbone Helical pattern on XRay diffraction of DNA fibres Chargaff's rule: No matter what the source of DNA: Adenine and Thymine levels are equal; Guanine and Cytosine levels are equal Key assumptions necessary the Watson-Crick solution: • • • • • • • two rather than one or three helices external location of the sugar-phosphate backbone base-pairing by hydrogen bonds according to Chargaff's rules i.e., G:C; and A:T DNA synthesis from deoxyribo-nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) Identity of genes Discovery of the complementary surface for gene copying The genetic code: its triplet nature and detailed description * molecule that accepts protons

5: RNA: Transcription and Translation: The Genetic Code; targeting proteins to specific cellular compartments

Objective: A comparison of the structures of DNA and RNA, the different species of RNA and their roles, the roles of messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA and microRNA, the role of the nucleolus in the genesis of ribosomes, modifications to messenger RNA in eukaryotes that enhance its stability and its ability to dock with ribosomes for translation, the origin of complex structures in RNA, the composition of ribosomes, the structural organization of amino acid-loaded transfer RNAs, base-pairing between codons in mRNA and anticodons in tRNA, significance of and differences between DNA and RNA viruses as well as RNA(+) and RNA(-) viruses, retroviruses and how they interact with the host genome, reverse transcription, reverse transcription PCR, and finally, ribozymes: definition and examples

6: Protein Structure and Function: the principles of protein structure and how it can explain function

No specific objectives in block book

7: Enzymes: Substrates; Products; Modes of Inhibition

Objective: How enzymes facilitate chemical reactions, influence reaction rates and the meaning of the Michaelis-Menten analysis. The three modes of inhibition and that enzymes are important drug targets in medicine and also toxin targets. Enzymes are both extracellular and intracellular, they are regulated in many different ways and that allosteric modulation of enzymes controls activity of metabolic pathways.

8: Feast and Famine: How are nutrients stored and made available when required?

Objective: Major nutrient stores and tissues and what occurs during feast and famine. The general function of the liver, adrenal gland and pancreas. The significance of the key hormonal controllers.

9: Biochemical Detection of Myocardial Infarction

Objective: Aim To present a rationale for the use of biochemical tests esp. troponin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Content Definitions and basic concepts How AMI can be diagnosed from biochemical tests Troponin as a biomarker for AMI (and some `traps for new players’) Summary References & further reading

Immunology

1: Ancient and Modern Defenses: An Introduction to the Immune System

Function and organization of the innate and adaptive immunity, their different components and cell types. The significance of primary and secondary lymphoid tissue and their role in stimulating adaptive immunity

2: Antigen Capture and Presentation ‘What Lymphocytes See’

Function of different types of immune cells, T cells and dendritic cells. The meaning of MHC complex and how it functions to regulate immune response. The mechanisms of how protein antigens are processed and the endogenous and exogenous antigen pathways.

3: Lymphocyte Antigen Receptors & Development of Immune Repertoires

B and T cell receptor structure (+signaling molecules associated with these receptors), the different classes of antibodies, the development of receptor repertoires (using Ig genes as example) and the clonal selection theory. Aim B cell receptor (BcR) structure; surface-bound Ig Classes of antibodies T cell Receptor (TcR) structure and development Signalling molecules associated with TcR and BcR Development of receptor repertoires using Ig genes as example Clonal selection theory

4: Activating T Cells, Cytokines, & Chemokines

Mechanisms of antigen recognition of the MHC peptide complex by T cells, the co-stimulation for maximum activation of T cells, the T cell response to activation, the differentiation to effector and memory T cells, and the expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors. The changes in lymphocyte migration to sites of infection and inflammation.

5: Activation of T Lymphocytes in Cell-Mediated Immune Responses

Objective: Mechanisms of antigen recognition of the MHC peptide complex by T cells, the co-stimulation for maximum activation of T cells, the T cell response to activation, the differentiation to effector and memory T cells, and the expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors. The changes in lymphocyte migration to sites of infection and inflammation. Aim The student can explain the T cell related mechanisms of: • Antigen recognition of the MHC-peptide complex by T cells Co-stimulation for maximum activation of T cells (signal 1 and signal 2) • • • T lymphocyte responses to activation: clonal expansion and cytokine production (role of IL-2 and IL-2R in T cell proliferation) Differentiation to effector (Th1 and Th2 subsets), and memory T cells, and expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors Changes in lymphocyte migration to sites of infection & inflammation

6: Activation of B Cells in Humoral Immune Responses

Objective: Mechanisms of: Central T and B cell tolerance, peripheral T and B cell tolerance, genetic factors in autoimmunity, the role of infections in autoimmunity, and finally, some selected autoimmune disease.

7: Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity: Eradicating Extracellular Bacteria

8: Self Tolerance and Autoimmunity

Objective: The student understands the principles of: • Transplantation to ‘correct’ deficit or disease: - Examples of organ and tissue grafts - Major and minor histocompatibility - Immune response to transplants - Circumventing immune responses by tissue matching and immunosuppression - Bone marrow transplants and gene therapy

9: Immune System Dysfunction

10: Manipulating Immune Responses

Infectious Diseases

1: Communicable Diseases in a Global Context

Significance of microbial diversity, prokaryotic,eukaryotic and sub-cellular microbes. What distinguishes commensal microbes from pathogens, together with the epidemic control and disease eradication. The concept of antimicrobial chemotherapy and understand that there is a continual emergence of "new“ infectious diseases.

2: Eukaryotic Pathogens

No objectives specified Dr. Al AmriMonday, 10 september, 9-10 am

3: Prokaryotic Pathogens (medically important bacteria)

4: Sub Cellular Pathogens

Objective: Organisation and function of RNA viruses, DNA viruses and Prions. Aim RNA viruses – structure, composition, genetics, replication DNA viruses – structure, composition, genetics, replication Prions

5: Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis

Objective: Factors promoting colonisation, adherence, motility and Fe acquisition. The mechanisms involved in evading host defences; capsules,inhibition of phagocytosis, protein A. The factors that damage the host; exotoxins, endotoxin, hydrolytic enzymes. Aim • Factors promoting colonisation - adherence, motility, Fe acquisition etc • Evading host defences - capsules, inhibition of phagocytosis, protein A etc Factors that damage the host Exotoxins, endotoxin, hydrolytic enzymes etc

6: Mechanisms of Viral Pathogenesis

Objective: Means by which viruses spread through the host, the genetic determinants of viral virulence, and the mechanisms of disease production. The mechanisms of viral damage to tissues and organs, virus-induced immunopathology, persistent and latent infections and viral oncogenesis.

7: Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

Objective: Bacterial culture methods, virus isolation by cell culture, rapid antigenic detection methods, molecular diagnosis and finally, serology.

8: Control of Infectious Diseases 1

Objective: Antimicrobial therapy and the emergence of resistance, sterilization and disinfection, immunization, surveillance and vector control, public health engineering and finally, prevention of zoonotic infections and overall food safety.

9: Control of Infectious Diseases 2

Objective: Measures taken to prevent infection, including: quarantine, hygiene and sanitation, vector control and prevention of exposure to vectors, immunization and the eradication of infectious diseases.

Obstetrics & Gynecology

Introduction to Women’s Health

Objective: Major issues related to women's health: puberty, menstruation, contraception, fertility and infertility, pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, menopause and old age.

medical research

Introduction to Medical Research

Uncategorized single lectures

Bürden of disease

By the end of this teaching activity, students should be able to: • list the major factors that affect the distribution of ill health (burden of disease) in Saudi and International populations. • Compare in broad terms different methods of measuring disease burden.

Saudi Health Care System

Communicable Disease Policy

Objective: By the end of this teaching session, students should be able to: • • • • • define a communicable disease explain what is required for the development, implementation and evaluation of health policies describe the legislative underpinnings of public health policy describe the priorities and strategies for public health policy in Saudi Arabia understand the principles of disease surveillance and the investigation of a disease outbreak

Surveillance and Outbreak Management

Objective: Aim To introduce and describe the rationale, purposes and data sources for disease surveillance and apply them to the investigation of outbreaks Content Students should be able to: • • • • define surveillance explain the importance of public health surveillance describe how surveillance is carried out in Saudi Arabia understand the principles of disease surveillance and the investigation of a disease outbreak

Not in the block book!

pain management

depression - pharma

Introduction to men's health

Introduction to medical imaging

what is imaging

Hypersensitivity