KEY Pink font: no objectives specifiedwhite: not in the midtermOrange: included in the OSCEBlue: assignment required(-/): lecture available in dropbox (riyadh or jeddah)(IC): incomplete
General anatomical terms, planes, movements and structures. The basic language used to identify structures (or parts thereof), their functions and their relationships with other structures in the body.
General anatomical organization of skin, bones, joints and skeletal muscles
General anatomical structure and organization of arteries, veins and lymphatics
General anatomical structure and organization of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and viscera. Aim An introduction to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and viscera. Content • The general differences in structure, function and location of cardiac and smooth muscle • Viscera (hollow/solid, sphincters/obstruction of hollow viscera, endocrine & exocrine glands) General location of viscera within different body systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary) Structure and function of serous membranes (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum) The nerve supply to viscera (sympathetic, parasympathetic, visceral afferents)
General anatomical structure and organization of the trunk - the structures and make-up of the thorax and abdomen.
General anatomical structure and organization of the head and neck - the general framework of the bones, muscles, organs, blood and nerve supply.
General anatomical structure and organization of the central nervous system; from spinal cord to cortex. Key features of neural cells and what makes them special.
General anatomical organisation of the peripheral nervous system; the nerves and plexuses. Key features of peripheral cells and the formation of plexuses. The main dermatomes and myotomes, how they develop and why they are important. The concept of referred pain
Objective: General anatomical organization of the limbs, the framework of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, arteries and nerves. The organization of block 1
Objective: Detailed anatomical organization of the bones and joints of the upper limb. The movements at each joint - shoulder, elbow, wrist and those in hand. Aim An overview of the bones and joints of the upper limb. Content • The bones of the upper limb including their structure, relationships and function. • The joints of the upper limb including their structure, relationships and function.
Objective: Detailed anatomical organization of the muscles of the shoulder and arm; their attachments and functions. The functions for each individual muscle and its action on the major joints, namely shoulder, elbow, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular. Aim An overview of the muscles of the forearm. Content • • • • The muscles of the forearm region including their structure, relationships and function. The muscles of the hand region including their structure, relationships and function. The connective tissues of the hand. The topographical relationships of the forearm and hand
Objective: Detailed anatomical organization of the muscles of the forearm and hand; their attachments and functions. The action of each muscle on the major joints, for example, elbow, wrist, and those in the hand. Aim • An introduction to the organisation of the muscles of the upper limb, shoulder and arm Content • Students should be able to describe the general attachments and actions of the following muscle groups: • Rotator Cuffs: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis • Shoulder: pectoralis major et minor, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboids, teres major, deltoid • Arm; biceps, triceps, coracobrachialis, brachialis
Objective: Detailed anatomical organisation of the blood vessels of the upper limb, their major course and innervations.
Objective: Aim • To present an overview of the nerves of the upper limb. Content • • • • The structure and relationships of the plexuses of the upper limb. The course, relationships and structures supplied for the major nerves of the upper limb. A general description of a peripheral nerve lesion. Examples of upper limb peripheral nerve lesions.
General histological organization of cells and tissues found in the body
General histological organization of cells and tissues found in the body
General histological organization and different types of connective tissue and muscle.
General histological organization of lymph,blood vessels and nerve tissue in body.
General histological organization of Gastrointestinal Tract in body
Key concepts of homeostasis and their application to the regulation of body temperature and plasma osmolarity
Mechanisms that regulate and maintain intracellular homeostasis.
Mechanisms for intracellular communication, using illustrative examples.
Key mechanisms for intercellular communication, using illustrative examples Aim To explain key mechanisms for intercellular communication and examine illustrative examples. Content • • • • • • • Distinguish between electrical and chemical signalling and identify an example of each Distinguish between endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signalling and identify an example of each Describe the ionic signalling processes that occur at the neuromuscular junction and apply them to the mechanisms by which botulinum toxin, myasthenia gravis and organophosphates affect neuromuscular transmission Describe the molecular basis of electrical excitability Describe the molecular basis of nerve conduction and apply it to the mechanisms by which tetrodotoxin affects nerve conduction. Appreciate the effects of myelination and of fibre diameter on conduction rate Appreciate the features of hormonal signalling as illustrated by the regulation of plasma glucose levels by insulin
Objective: Principle maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy
Objective: Processes involved in cell division and growth, with reference to key mechanisms for normal and disordered events in the cell cycle. Aim To explain the processes of cell division and growth, with reference to key mechanisms for normal and disordered events in the cell cycle. Content • • • • • • major events of the cell mammalian cell cycle roles of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in driving the cell cycle restriction point, the G1/S and the G2/M check points role of growth factors and other environmental factors in regulating entry to and exit from cell proliferation importance of disordered signalling in driving cancer cell cycles (c-abl and CML, oestrogens, Epidermal Growth Factor and breast cancer) role of apoptosis as a mechanism for correcting errors and regulating cell numbers
Basic concepts of the cell cycle and nuclear events, mitosis and meiosis. The methods for visualisation of chromosomes in cell division, together with the advanced methods for high resolution in premetaphase (using example of Prader-Willi syndrome). Aim Cell cycle and nuclear events Methods for visualization of chromosomes in cell division Mitosis, DNA replication, anaphase, prophase metaphase, interphase Meiosis I & II – timing in - reproductive cycle in males and females - Crossing over/recombination • Advanced methods for high resolution in premetaphase - Karyotyping - FISH - Chromosome Painting - Comparative Genomic Hybridisation - Array CGH • Basic example - Prader-Willi syndrome - FISH - Deletion/duplication by array CGH
Overall genetic paradigm DNA, RNA, Protein, the chemical nature of DNA, the organisation of the double helix, the mechanisms of transcription and translation, the significance of the genetic code, the different types of mutations, and finally, the concept of protein misfolding. Aim Genetic Paradigm DNA→RNA→Protein Chemical Nature of DNA Double Helix Genes and Chromosomes Transcription Translation Genetic Code Types of mutations/silent, nonsense, missense Protein misfolding
Objective: Aim Epidemiology of Genetic Disorders Levels of Treatment - The Family - Clinical Phenotype - Biochemical Disorders - Mutant Protein - Mutant Gene • Triplet mutations • Ethical dilemmas in Treatment of Genetic Disorders • Basic Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Strategies (2-3 slides)
Principles of pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontitis. The main clinical manifestations of dental infection in terms of underlying pathophysiological processes. Aim • • • Principles of the pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontitis will be outlined, as will the main clinical manifestations of dental infection in terms of underlying patho- physiological processes. In particular, the nature of dental plaque and its role in caries development, as well as the progressive spread of infection from the surface of the tooth to the pulp, periapical tissues and then soft tissues. The systemic effects of this will be outlined, while the development of chronic periodontitis will also be discussed. Attention will be drawn to the basic principles of inflammation using dental infection as an example.
Major oral diseases and their distribution in the Saudi population. The disparities in oral disease burden between different demographic groups and the current evidence linking oral and systemic disease. The major challenges facing the prevention and management of oral disease in Saudi Arabia. Aim • • • • • • The major oral diseases and their distribution in the Saudi population. The disparities in oral disease burden between different demographicgroups. The current evidence linking oral and systemic disease. Examples will include cardiovascular disease, obesity, preterm birth and certain cancers. The oral disease burden in the medically compromised. The major challenges facing the prevention and management of oral disease in Saudi Arabia. The main approaches for prevention, including fluoridation, personal oral hygiene, fissure sealants and surgical intervention. Emphasis will be on the need for an informed preventive strategy tailored to the needs of the patient.
1: Integrative Medicine
2: Cervical cancer
3: The Software: Genetic Information – its Expression and Variation
4: Medical Implications of Dental and Oral Disease
5: What is PBL?
6: HIV and Health
1: introduction to PPD
2: Careers in Medicine
3: Presentation skills for OSCE
4: Ethical Dilemmas in Neonatology
1: Introduction to Community & Doctor Theme, Assignment
2: Multicultural Issues in Health Delivery, Assignment
3: Debate: Health Care for the Elderly, Assignment
4: Introduction to Epidemiology, Assignment
1: Introduction to EBM
Introduction to Anatomy: Bones, Joints, Muscles
Introduction to Cells, Epithelial Tissues
Introduction to Anatomy: Viscera, Vessels and Lymphatics
Connective Tissue and Muscle
Introduction to Microbiology: It’s a Small World
Introduction to Anatomy: Head and Trunk
Introduction to Microbiology 2: It’s a Small World
Introduction to Anatomy: Nervous System
Organization of Tissues
Upper Limb: Bones and Joints
Principles of Nutrition
Upper limb: Shoulder and Arm Muscles
Viruses and Virology
Upper Limb: Forearm and Hand Muscles
Genes and Mutations
Investigating Infection and Immunity to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Antibodies: Applications in Clinical Immunology
Upper Limb: Vessels
Upper limb: Nerves (+Lesions)
Introduction & Orientation to History Taking
Empathy, Rapport & Non-judgmental Interviewing
Structure of the Medical History and Listening Skills
paediatric history taking
Interviewing with feedback
Introduction to the Hospital
Height, Weight, & Waist Circumference (BMI)
infection control general concepts, gowning and hand washing
Introduction & Orientation to Physical Examination
Objective: Defining the meaning of psychiatry, cinematic interlude and psychotic and anxiety disorders.
Objective: Widespread nature of mental illness in the community, the range of psychotic illness in the community and some basic symptoms of psychosis. The plasticity of the brain and changes in both function and structure that mental effort causes.
Objective: Major stages of early development of the human embryo
Objective: Major defects associated with the developing embryo during pregnancy
Objective: Aim Rather than addressing the age-old dichotomy between "biologically normal ageing" on the one hand and "disease" on the other. The aim of this lecture is to define a relatively new and highly practical approach to human ageing; ie the distinction between successful and unsuccessful ageing and how to bring this about. Content Students should be able to: • • • • • • • • Define successful ageing and understand the current models and approaches. Describe how we measure successful ageing. Understand the difference between maximum lifespan and life expectancy, and how these have changed (or not) over the years, and be aware of the Saudi demography. Describe biological and cellular theories of ageing. Describe genetic and environmental protective factors for successful ageing and also the risk factors for unsuccessful ageing, their interactions and effects. Understand the aims of health promotion and public health intervention. Understand the concept of “compression of morbidity”, and whether this has been proven around the world and in Saudi Arabia. Understand why are older people "at risk" in our hospitals and health care system. Understand the concepts of threshold, failure of homeostasis and the resulting syndromes of Geriatric Medicine, also called the “Giants of Geriatric Medicine”.
Basic principles underlying the processes of cellular injury, adaptation (atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, metaplasia), ageing, and the two chief mechanisms leading to cell death (necrosis and apoptosis).
Major processes of tissue renewal and repair in the body. Aim An introduction into the processes of tissue renewal and repair Content • • • • • the control mechanisms that exist in normal cellular proliferation and tissue growth the basic cell cycle and the concept of the stem cells soluble factors and signalling mechanisms for growth the role and significance of the extracellular matrix and the overall process of angiogenesis fundamental concepts of regeneration, healing, scar formation/fibrosis
Significance and the process of Anatomical Pathology and Laboratory Diagnostics. Aim • The students to understand the role of Pathology in the diagnosis and management of disease. Content anatomical pathology chemical pathology hematology microbiology/immunology genetics
Objective: Role of acute inflammation in normality anddisease, the cellular and soluble componentsassociated with and that produce inflammationand finally, the outcomes and controlmechanisms of inflammation.
Objective: Meaning of neoplasia and nomenclature of tumours, the similarities and differences between benign and malignant tumours, the mechanism of underlying neoplastic transformation and accumulation of genetic damage, the basic morphology of tumours, both in macroscopic and microscopic terms, the mechanism underlying metastasis and finally, the overall risk factors for cancer. Aim • An introduction into the concept of neoplasia Content • • • • • • meaning of neoplasia and nomenclature of tumours similarities and differences between benign and malignant tumours mechanism of underlying neoplastic transformation and accumulation of genetic damage basic morphology of tumours, both in macroscopic and microscopic terms mechanism underlying metastasis the overall risk factors for cancer
Objective: Role of chronic inflammation in normality and disease, the cellular and soluble components associated with and that produce inflammation and finally, the outcomes and control mechanisms of inflammation.
Relationship between the science of pharmacology, the discipline of clinical pharmacology and the scientific basis of rational prescribing of medications.
Diversity of mechanisms by which drugs can have beneficial effects in treating human disorders.
Concepts of dose-response, antagonism and the associated metrics such as EC50 and ED.
Mechanisms by which the body absorbs and metabolises drugs and the potential for disease states (or other drugs) to compromise the body's drug metabolising capacity. Aim • To examine the mechanisms by which the body absorbs & metabolises drugs and the potential for disease states (or other drugs) to compromise the body’s drug metabolising capacity. Content Students should be able to explain the role and effects of the following on drug metabolism: the mechanism of liver metabolism of drugs cytochrome (CYP) P450 genetic polymorphism of CYPs drug metabolism as a basis for drug interactions routes of drug administration and absorption
Objective: Assessment of drug effects in patients. The circumstances where measurement of drug concentrations in the blood may assist in optimizing drug dosing.
Objective: Issues underlying adverse events (AEs) associated with drug administration and the clinical management of drug overdose.
Objective: Aim To describe the use and abuse of legal and illicit drugs for non-medical purposes. To explain what is known about the associated dependency and psycho-active properties of these drugs. Content Students should be able to outline the non –medical use of the following substances, including their psycho-active properties: alcohol nicotine opiates amphetamines & related substances cannabis
Major nutrients and nutrient-sensing systems; significance of lipids, carbohydrates, oligo- and disaccharides, monosaccharides and proteins and amino acids and the control of digestion, absorption, appetite and satiety (together with the hormonal control of nutrient disposal and storage).
Metabolic pathways converting nutrients to energy, for example, the anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of glucose, fatty acid oxidation and the concept and function of ATP.
Mechanisms by which oxygen makes energy from nutrients.
The evidence that DNA is the "genetic material“ and that bacteriophage DNA changes the morphology/phenotype of bacterial cells. The purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides, the constraints used to model the structure of DNA, the identity of genes and the genetic code. Aim Evidence that DNA is the "genetic material" Bacteriophage DNA changes the morphology/phenotype of bacterial cells Early ideas on the nature of genes and gene copying: a "complementary surface" Chemical analysis demonstrates that DNA is made from building blocks that include: two types of organic base* (purines and pyrimidines) as well as 2-deoxyribose and inorganic phosphate The two Purines of DNA: Adenine; Guanine The two Pyrimidines of DNA: Cytosine and Thymine Nucleosides and Nucleotides Constraints used to model the structure of DNA: A sugar-phosphate backbone Helical pattern on XRay diffraction of DNA fibres Chargaff's rule: No matter what the source of DNA: Adenine and Thymine levels are equal; Guanine and Cytosine levels are equal Key assumptions necessary the Watson-Crick solution: • • • • • • • two rather than one or three helices external location of the sugar-phosphate backbone base-pairing by hydrogen bonds according to Chargaff's rules i.e., G:C; and A:T DNA synthesis from deoxyribo-nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) Identity of genes Discovery of the complementary surface for gene copying The genetic code: its triplet nature and detailed description * molecule that accepts protons
Objective: A comparison of the structures of DNA and RNA, the different species of RNA and their roles, the roles of messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA and microRNA, the role of the nucleolus in the genesis of ribosomes, modifications to messenger RNA in eukaryotes that enhance its stability and its ability to dock with ribosomes for translation, the origin of complex structures in RNA, the composition of ribosomes, the structural organization of amino acid-loaded transfer RNAs, base-pairing between codons in mRNA and anticodons in tRNA, significance of and differences between DNA and RNA viruses as well as RNA(+) and RNA(-) viruses, retroviruses and how they interact with the host genome, reverse transcription, reverse transcription PCR, and finally, ribozymes: definition and examples
No specific objectives in block book
Objective: How enzymes facilitate chemical reactions, influence reaction rates and the meaning of the Michaelis-Menten analysis. The three modes of inhibition and that enzymes are important drug targets in medicine and also toxin targets. Enzymes are both extracellular and intracellular, they are regulated in many different ways and that allosteric modulation of enzymes controls activity of metabolic pathways.
Objective: Major nutrient stores and tissues and what occurs during feast and famine. The general function of the liver, adrenal gland and pancreas. The significance of the key hormonal controllers.
Objective: Aim To present a rationale for the use of biochemical tests esp. troponin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Content Definitions and basic concepts How AMI can be diagnosed from biochemical tests Troponin as a biomarker for AMI (and some `traps for new players’) Summary References & further reading
Function and organization of the innate and adaptive immunity, their different components and cell types. The significance of primary and secondary lymphoid tissue and their role in stimulating adaptive immunity
Function of different types of immune cells, T cells and dendritic cells. The meaning of MHC complex and how it functions to regulate immune response. The mechanisms of how protein antigens are processed and the endogenous and exogenous antigen pathways.
B and T cell receptor structure (+signaling molecules associated with these receptors), the different classes of antibodies, the development of receptor repertoires (using Ig genes as example) and the clonal selection theory. Aim B cell receptor (BcR) structure; surface-bound Ig Classes of antibodies T cell Receptor (TcR) structure and development Signalling molecules associated with TcR and BcR Development of receptor repertoires using Ig genes as example Clonal selection theory
Mechanisms of antigen recognition of the MHC peptide complex by T cells, the co-stimulation for maximum activation of T cells, the T cell response to activation, the differentiation to effector and memory T cells, and the expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors. The changes in lymphocyte migration to sites of infection and inflammation.
Objective: Mechanisms of antigen recognition of the MHC peptide complex by T cells, the co-stimulation for maximum activation of T cells, the T cell response to activation, the differentiation to effector and memory T cells, and the expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors. The changes in lymphocyte migration to sites of infection and inflammation. Aim The student can explain the T cell related mechanisms of: • Antigen recognition of the MHC-peptide complex by T cells Co-stimulation for maximum activation of T cells (signal 1 and signal 2) • • • T lymphocyte responses to activation: clonal expansion and cytokine production (role of IL-2 and IL-2R in T cell proliferation) Differentiation to effector (Th1 and Th2 subsets), and memory T cells, and expression of cytokines and cytokine receptors Changes in lymphocyte migration to sites of infection & inflammation
Objective: Mechanisms of: Central T and B cell tolerance, peripheral T and B cell tolerance, genetic factors in autoimmunity, the role of infections in autoimmunity, and finally, some selected autoimmune disease.
Objective: The student understands the principles of: • Transplantation to ‘correct’ deficit or disease: - Examples of organ and tissue grafts - Major and minor histocompatibility - Immune response to transplants - Circumventing immune responses by tissue matching and immunosuppression - Bone marrow transplants and gene therapy
Significance of microbial diversity, prokaryotic,eukaryotic and sub-cellular microbes. What distinguishes commensal microbes from pathogens, together with the epidemic control and disease eradication. The concept of antimicrobial chemotherapy and understand that there is a continual emergence of "new“ infectious diseases.
No objectives specified Dr. Al AmriMonday, 10 september, 9-10 am
Objective: Organisation and function of RNA viruses, DNA viruses and Prions. Aim RNA viruses – structure, composition, genetics, replication DNA viruses – structure, composition, genetics, replication Prions
Objective: Factors promoting colonisation, adherence, motility and Fe acquisition. The mechanisms involved in evading host defences; capsules,inhibition of phagocytosis, protein A. The factors that damage the host; exotoxins, endotoxin, hydrolytic enzymes. Aim • Factors promoting colonisation - adherence, motility, Fe acquisition etc • Evading host defences - capsules, inhibition of phagocytosis, protein A etc Factors that damage the host Exotoxins, endotoxin, hydrolytic enzymes etc
Objective: Means by which viruses spread through the host, the genetic determinants of viral virulence, and the mechanisms of disease production. The mechanisms of viral damage to tissues and organs, virus-induced immunopathology, persistent and latent infections and viral oncogenesis.
Objective: Bacterial culture methods, virus isolation by cell culture, rapid antigenic detection methods, molecular diagnosis and finally, serology.
Objective: Antimicrobial therapy and the emergence of resistance, sterilization and disinfection, immunization, surveillance and vector control, public health engineering and finally, prevention of zoonotic infections and overall food safety.
Objective: Measures taken to prevent infection, including: quarantine, hygiene and sanitation, vector control and prevention of exposure to vectors, immunization and the eradication of infectious diseases.
Objective: Major issues related to women's health: puberty, menstruation, contraception, fertility and infertility, pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, menopause and old age.
By the end of this teaching activity, students should be able to: • list the major factors that affect the distribution of ill health (burden of disease) in Saudi and International populations. • Compare in broad terms different methods of measuring disease burden.
Objective: By the end of this teaching session, students should be able to: • • • • • define a communicable disease explain what is required for the development, implementation and evaluation of health policies describe the legislative underpinnings of public health policy describe the priorities and strategies for public health policy in Saudi Arabia understand the principles of disease surveillance and the investigation of a disease outbreak
Objective: Aim To introduce and describe the rationale, purposes and data sources for disease surveillance and apply them to the investigation of outbreaks Content Students should be able to: • • • • define surveillance explain the importance of public health surveillance describe how surveillance is carried out in Saudi Arabia understand the principles of disease surveillance and the investigation of a disease outbreak