Language Acquisition

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Language Acquisition by Mind Map: Language Acquisition

1. First Language Acquisition: the process whereby children acquire their first language.

1.1. Theorists

1.1.1. Jean Piaget's : Cognitive Theory

1.1.2. Skinner's: Behaviorist Theory

1.1.3. Chomsky's: The Innateness Hypothesis

2. Second Language Acquisition: also known as sequential language acquisition, involves the process of learning a second language, other than the one that the individual has first learned.

2.1. Theorists

2.1.1. Vygotsky's: Sociocultural Theory ( ZPD)

2.1.2. Krashen's: Theory in Communication

2.1.3. Lambert's: Critical Period Hypothesis

3. Second Language Theory: 1. Acquisition Learning Hypothesis: Two-second language performance systems: Acquired and acquired subconsciously 2. Monitor Hypothesis: a second learner monitors in order to smooth out their language. 3. Natural Order Hypothesis: second learners acquire grammatical structures that follow a natural order that is predictable. 4. Input Hypothesis: language input is how language is acquired. 5. Affective-filter Hypothesis: emotions act as a filter to help or hinder the language acquisition.

4. Four theories of Language development: 1. Behavioral: that infants learn oral language from other human role models through a process involving imitation, rewards, and practices. 2. Nativistic: language is an innate fundamental part of the human genetic make-up and that language acquisition occurs as a natural part of the human experience. 3. semantic-cognitive: a perspective of language development that emphasizes the interrelationship between language learning and cognition. 4. social-pragmatic: an approach to word learning, children do not need specific linguistic constraints to learn words but flexible and powerful social-cognitive skills.

5. A practical use for Second Language Theories and Hypothesis: It is important that students are taught a second language sooner rather than later as Lambert states in his critical period. At some point in early teens, the ability to adapt to a new language becomes harder. Krashen has observed and given the hypothesis that giving our students a safe place to learn will lessen their anxiety and increase their second language learning. Allowing our students to observe, listen, participate in language on their own timeline, they will become proficient in a more natural way.

6. For First Language Acquisition if we were to go with Skinner: believes giving positive reinforcements with repetitive learning the language acquisition will be achieved. Chomsky: believes it is not about the reinforcements that language is learned but it is innately ingrained in our brains and unless there is a developmental delay of some sort we all will learn the language that surrounds us. Piaget: has the theory that language is one part of the development of a child's intellect.