Foundations in Pharmacy Practice

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Foundations in Pharmacy Practice by Mind Map: Foundations in Pharmacy Practice

1. Professionalism

1.1. Demonstrating professionalism through actions and behaviors

1.1.1. Professionalism

1.1.1.1. Conducting oneself in a way that shows they respect their profession.

1.1.1.2. Follow the rules and expectations of the profession.

1.1.1.3. Come to work everyday dressed professionaly.

1.1.1.4. Use appropriate language and treat everyone with respect.

1.1.2. Profession

1.1.2.1. A career that requires a set of skills that forms a technique.

1.1.2.2. Authority to practice a profession is granted by licensure or certification.

1.1.2.3. There is a recognized setting where the profession is practiced.

1.1.2.4. There is a guild of professionals in a profession.

1.1.3. Professional

1.1.3.1. A member of a profession who demonstrates the traits of a professional.

1.1.3.2. Traits of a professional

1.1.3.2.1. Knowledge of skills

1.1.3.2.2. Self-improvement

1.1.3.2.3. Service orientation

1.1.3.2.4. Creativity and Innovation

1.1.3.2.5. Conventional relationship with patient

1.1.3.2.6. Pride

1.1.3.2.7. Conscience and Trustworthiness

1.1.3.2.8. Accountability

1.1.3.2.9. Ethically Sound Decision Making

1.1.3.2.10. Leadership

1.1.4. Continuous Professional Development

1.1.4.1. A self-directed, lifelong process of continuous learning and development as a professional.

1.1.4.1.1. The Continuous Professional Development Cycle

2. The History of Pharmacy

2.1. The history and evolution of the profession of pharmacy

2.1.1. Ancient History

2.1.1.1. The beginning of Pharmacy

2.1.1.1.1. Pharmacy has been around as long as humans have.

2.1.1.1.2. In ancient times, people used trial and error to determine what plants would help treat ailments.

2.1.1.1.3. In the Neolithic Period, people believed that ailments and conditions were caused by the gods and idols so pharmacy was focused more on treating immediate and issues and then performing rituals to "cast out the evil."

2.1.1.1.4. The Sumerians had about 250 vegetable and 120 mineral drugs. They also had the oldest prescription.

2.1.1.2. The Egyptians

2.1.1.2.1. Egyptians had a chief preparer of drugs and then a collector of drug products.

2.1.1.2.2. The Ebers Papyrus from 1500 B.C. described diseases, drugs, and how treat certain ailments in great detail.

2.1.1.3. The Arabians

2.1.1.3.1. Pharmacy became its own thing apart from medical practitioners.

2.1.1.4. The Romans

2.1.1.4.1. Dioscorides wrote Materia Medica, a series of 5 books that summed up all that was known about plants being used for medicinal purposes.

2.1.1.4.2. Galen was an advocate for polypharmacy, which was compounding drugs.

2.1.1.5. The Greeks

2.1.1.5.1. Hygeia, who was the daughter of Asclepius, the God of healing, became recognized as the symbol for pharmacy.

2.1.1.5.2. Theophrastus is known as the father of pharmacognosy and botany, who discovered and wrote about many plants that could be used for treatments.

2.1.1.5.3. Hippocrates is known as the father of medicine and he was the first to say that health and illness were based on natural not supernatural factors.

2.1.1.5.4. The word "pharmacy" is derived from the Greek word "pharmakon," which means drug or poison.

2.1.2. United States of America

2.1.2.1. In the 1700s, knowledge of drugs expanded when explorers arrived in the west and exchanged knowledge with the native people.

2.1.2.2. As the population in America started expanding in the 1700s, drugstores began to emerge.

2.1.2.3. In 1820, the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America was published which included a list of drugs and directions for their uses.

2.1.2.4. The profession of pharmacy did not actually exist until the APhA was founded in 1852.

2.1.2.5. In the late 1800s, new and more effective drugs were created, laws were passed that made distinctions between pharmacy and medicine, and state-affiliate pharmacy schools were created.

2.1.2.6. In the early 1900s, Johns Hopkins hospital used a system that had more pharmacists in the hospital and allowed pharmacists to specialize and focused on management of medications.

2.1.2.7. In the 1900s, the rise of the soda fountain era began where many pharmacies relied mostly on the sale of other items.

2.1.2.8. In the 1950s and 1960s the community pharmacies shifted away from the soda fountain era and more towards filling prescription drugs.

2.1.2.9. The late 1900s was when large chain drug stores became very popular.

3. The Foundation of Pharmaceutical Practice

3.1. The pharmacist's patient care process, philosophy of practice, and pharmaceutical care.

3.1.1. Philosophy of Practice

3.1.1.1. Pharmacists should meet a social need as highly trained professionals who should be there to help patients and the community.

3.1.1.2. Pharmacists should assume responsibility for optimizing medications by always having the patient's best interest in mind and always giving the best managed care possible.

3.1.1.3. Pharmacists should embrace a patient-centered approach by always taking into account a patient's beliefs and wishes.

3.1.1.4. Pharmacists should care for their patients through an ongoing patient-pharmacist relationship by creating a warm, welcoming environment that allows for mutual respect.

3.1.1.5. Pharmacists should not only work with their patients but also work with members of a healthcare team to ensure that their patient receives the best care possible.

3.1.2. Pharmaceutical Care

3.1.2.1. The responsible management of drug therapy.

3.1.2.2. Focuses on optimizing medicine that work the best for each patient individually.

3.1.2.3. Goal is to improve health outcomes.

3.1.3. Pharmacist's Patient Care Process

3.1.3.1. Adopting a uniform patient care process is important because it helps guarantee that all patients receive equal and great care.

3.1.3.2. The components of the Pharmacist's Patient Care Process

3.1.3.2.1. Collect - Collecting the necessary subjective and objective information and analyze that information.

3.1.3.2.2. Assess - Assess the information collected and formulate a problem list.

3.1.3.2.3. Plan - Develop an individualized, evidence-based care plan in collaboration with the healthcare team and the patient.

3.1.3.2.4. Implement - Educate the patient on the plan and make sure that they understand and then make sure that the plan is put into place.

3.1.3.2.5. Follow-up: Monitor and Evaluate - Provide ongoing follow-up and monitoring to help the patient adhere to the plan.

3.1.3.3. The patient care process revolves around communication, collaboration, and documentation.

4. Goals and Mindset

4.1. Goals

4.1.1. You are more likely to achieve your goals if you write them down.

4.1.2. Your goals should focus on your personal learning and growth not performance.

4.1.3. S.M.A.R.T. Goals

4.1.3.1. Specific - well-defined, clear and unambiguous

4.1.3.2. Measurable - you measure your progress towards the achievement of the goal.

4.1.3.3. Achievable - the goal is attainable

4.1.3.4. Realistic - within reach and is relevant to your life purpose

4.1.3.5. Timely - the goal has a clearly defined timeline with a specific deadline

4.2. Mindset

4.2.1. Fixed Mindset

4.2.1.1. The belief that your qualities and abilities are fixed and unable to change.

4.2.2. Growth Mindset

4.2.2.1. The belief that your qualities and abilities improve through learning and practice.

5. Leadership

5.1. The purpose of a leader is to help individuals, groups, and organizations grow and develop.

5.2. Leadership always starts with TRUST.

5.2.1. Ways to build trust

5.2.1.1. Clarity - be transparent about expectations and priorities.

5.2.1.2. Compassion - care about the people that you lead

5.2.1.3. Character - always do what is right not just what is easy

5.2.1.4. Contribution - do not just lead, but also contribute to your team and follow through on your promises

5.2.1.5. Competency - be willing to learn in order to stay relevant and competent

5.2.1.6. Connection - show interest in those you lead

5.2.1.7. Commitment - always stand by your team through adversity

5.2.1.8. Consistency - do the small, but important things consistently

5.3. The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership

5.3.1. 1. Model the Way - set the example by aligning your actions and shared values

5.3.2. 2. Inspire a shared vision - picture the future and enlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirations

5.3.3. 3. Challenge the process - look for innovative ways to improve, experiment, and take risks

5.3.4. 4. Enable others to act - foster collaboration and strengthen others by building trust and facilitating relationships

5.3.5. 5. Encourage the heart - recognize contribution by showing appreciation for others' accomplishments

6. Wellness

6.1. The Wellness Wheel consists of 7 dimensions that must be balanced in order to have a healthy lifestyle.

6.1.1. Physical - the ability to maintain a healthy quality of life

6.1.2. Social - the ability to relate and connect with others

6.1.3. Emotional - the ability to understand yourself and handle the challenges that life poses

6.1.4. Spiritual - the ability to establish peace and harmony within your life

6.1.5. Environmental - the ability to be responsible for the quality of the air, water, and land that you need to survive

6.1.6. Occupational - the ability get fulfillment from your job while still maintaining a balance in your personal life

6.1.7. Intellectual - the ability to open your mind to new ideas and experiences that help your grow and learn

7. The Patient's Medication Experience

7.1. The sum of all a patient's past experiences that involve medication that shape the way they view drug therapy.

7.2. The main goal of a pharmaceutical care practitioner is to improve their patients' medication experiences.

7.3. Factors that affect a patient's medication experience

7.3.1. The patient's general attitude towards taking medications

7.3.2. The patient's understanding of drug therapy

7.3.3. The patients wants and expectations

7.3.4. That patient's concerns

7.3.5. The patient's cultural, ethical, and religious beliefs

7.3.6. The patient's medication taking behavior

8. Drug Therapy Problems

8.1. The Four Drug-Related Needs

8.1.1. Indication - What is the need for the drug?

8.1.2. Effectiveness - Is the drug working for the patient?

8.1.3. Safety - Is the drug safe for the patient? Are the allergic to it?

8.1.4. Convenience/Adherence - Is the patient able to take the drug?

8.2. The Seven Drug Therapy Problems

8.2.1. Unnecessary drug therapy (Indication)

8.2.2. Needs additional drug therapy (Indication)

8.2.3. Needs different drug product (Effectiveness)

8.2.4. Dosage too low (Effectiveness)

8.2.5. Adverse drug reactions (Safety)

8.2.6. Dosage too high (Safety)

8.2.7. Non-adherence (Convenience/Adherence)

8.3. Documenting the drug therapy problem

8.3.1. Always document the problem, condition, and clinical state

9. Pharmacy Organizations

9.1. Why should you join pharmacy organizations?

9.1.1. Students

9.1.1.1. To learn more about pharmacy

9.1.1.2. Connections

9.1.1.3. Learning experiences

9.1.1.4. Meeting new people

9.1.2. Pharmacists

9.1.2.1. Continuing professional development

9.1.2.2. Networking

9.1.2.3. Meeting new people

9.1.2.4. Career opportunities

9.2. What is the purpose of professional pharmacy organizations.

9.2.1. Advocacy

9.2.2. Continuing Education

9.2.3. Networking

9.2.4. Giving back to the profession

9.2.5. Advancing the profession

10. Distinguishing Yourself

10.1. Why can it be beneficial to pursue credentials?

10.1.1. To further develop clinical skills

10.1.2. To convey an area of expertise

10.1.3. To distinguish yourself from others

10.1.4. Credentials may be required for certain positions

10.2. Different types of credentials

10.2.1. Degree based - Masters or doctor degree

10.2.2. Practice based - licensure or residency training

10.2.3. Certificate training programs - There are many different programs offered by a variety of organizatins

10.2.4. Board certification - You can get board certified in a large variety of specialties

10.2.5. Postgraduate fellowships and fellow programs - These are typical offered in research or by pharmacy organizations