Community Psychology

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Community Psychology by Mind Map: Community Psychology

1. Chapter One

1.1. Medical Model

1.1.1. Focus is on the individual

1.1.2. Treats mental disorders the same as physical injury

1.2. Foundations

1.2.1. Prevention

1.2.1.1. Actions that stop problems from happening

1.2.1.2. First-order change

1.2.1.2.1. Minor changes that lead to short term improvement - focus on the individual

1.2.1.3. Second-order change

1.2.1.3.1. Actions that go above the individual and change on an environmental/structural level

1.2.2. Social Justice

1.2.2.1. Fair, equitable allocation of resources, opportunities, and power in society

1.2.2.2. Social Change

1.2.2.2.1. Not enough to simply recognize inequalities; must work toward social justice

1.2.3. Ecological Perspective

1.2.3.1. Holistic lens for observation, examination, and action

1.2.3.2. Jim Kelly's Ecological Theory

1.2.3.2.1. Interdependence

1.2.3.2.2. Adaptation

1.2.3.2.3. Cycling of Resources

1.2.3.2.4. Succession

1.3. Other Key Principles

1.3.1. Respect for diversity

1.3.1.1. Inclusion of all people, especially those who have been underrepresented throughout history

1.3.2. Active citizenship participation

1.3.2.1. Individuals build valuable skills, shifts power dynamic to become less hierarchical, assures a higher level of involvement

1.3.3. Grounding in research and evaluation

1.3.3.1. Action-Oriented research

1.3.3.1.1. generates knowledge through participatory research, practice, and community partnerships

1.3.3.2. Evaluation

1.3.3.2.1. use of different research methods to understand person-environment interactions

1.3.3.2.2. Benefits

1.3.4. Interdisciplinary collaboration

1.3.4.1. Inclusion of multiple professional and academic disciplines in order to better understand communities and create social change

1.3.4.2. Benefits

1.3.4.2.1. Broader understanding of barriers

1.3.4.2.2. Better use of available resources

1.3.4.2.3. Promotion of shared understand between stakeholders

1.3.4.2.4. Maximization of shared resources

1.3.5. Empowerment

1.3.5.1. People and communities who have historically not had control over their lives become masters of their own affairs

1.3.5.2. Benefits

1.3.5.2.1. Autonomy

1.3.5.2.2. Self-determination

1.3.5.2.3. Access to resources

1.3.5.2.4. Community Participation

1.3.6. Policy

1.3.6.1. Working with legislative, executive, or judicial branches of government to bring about change at the local, community, and societal levels

1.3.7. Promotion of wellness

1.3.7.1. Combination of physical, psychological, and social health

1.3.7.2. Collective Wellness

1.3.7.2.1. includes groups of people and communities

2. Chapter Two

2.1. History of Community Psychology

2.1.1. Solidified as a field in response to social and political events in the 1960s

2.1.1.1. Civil Rights Movement

2.1.1.2. Feminist Movement

2.1.1.3. Gay Rights Movement

2.1.1.4. Environmental Movement

2.1.1.5. Protests against Vietnam

2.1.1.6. Community Mental Health Movement

2.1.2. Swampscott Conference

2.1.2.1. Discussed limitations of the traditional approach and additional avenues for addressing societal issues

2.1.2.2. This is where Community Psychology started in the U.S.

2.1.3. Decades

2.1.3.1. The First Decade

2.1.3.1.1. 1965-1975

2.1.3.1.2. 141 Training programs were developed and implemented

2.1.3.1.3. Division 27 of the APA was established

2.1.3.1.4. Austin Conference

2.1.3.1.5. Important publications

2.1.3.2. The Second Decade

2.1.3.2.1. 1975-1985

2.1.3.2.2. Officially changed to "The Society for Community Research and Action"

2.1.3.2.3. First Biennial Confernce

2.1.3.2.4. Significant Growth outside of the U.S. and Canada

2.1.3.2.5. Different community psychologists were urging the field to adopt an emphasis

2.1.3.3. The Third Decade

2.1.3.3.1. 1985-1995

2.1.3.3.2. Special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology was published celebrating two decades

2.1.3.3.3. "Dueling Addresses" continued from SCRA leaderships

2.1.3.3.4. 1988 Major Conference in Chicago, IL

2.1.3.4. The Fourth Decade

2.1.3.4.1. 1995-2005

2.1.3.4.2. More attention on participatory approach to research

2.1.3.4.3. SCRA, gained solid financial security by taking control of the American Journal of Community Psychology

2.1.3.5. The Fifth Decade

2.1.3.5.1. 2005-present

2.1.3.5.2. An internationalization of the field is occurring in terms of practice, research, training, and theory

2.1.3.5.3. Trailblazing women continue to make significant contributions to the field

2.1.3.5.4. Theories and methods of the field of Community Psychology are increasingly trying to capture a systems point of view

2.1.3.5.5. Community psychologists believe in “giving psychology away” and increasing participation in the field

2.2. GUEST SPEAKER

2.2.1. Our guest speaker for this module -Elizabeth Bartley - informed us of how we can provide and be active members of our community. She went over Invest in Neighborhoods.

3. Chapter Three

3.1. Community Psychologists

3.1.1. Seek to improve community well-being through a cycle of collaborative planning, action, and research in partnership with local community members

3.1.2. Emphasize exploring issues with a systems perspective, and focus on prevention and community contexts of behavior

3.1.3. There is no formal licensure for community psychologists

3.1.4. Work as researchers, policy developers, educators, program evaluators, program coordinators within academic, government, and non-profit settings

3.2. Practice Competencies

3.2.1. Define and clarify the unique combination of skills and values that differentiate community psychologists from other people working in community settings

3.2.2. The 18 competencies fall into five categories

3.2.2.1. Foundational Principles

3.2.2.2. Community program development and management

3.2.2.3. Community organizational capacity building

3.2.2.4. Community and Social change

3.2.2.5. Community research

3.3. Non-traditional Community Psychologists

3.3.1. have diverse specializations, backgrounds, and experiences that allow them to make the field rich in diversity

3.3.2. Pursue training in other academic fields or have lived experiences as community advocates

3.4. Work Setting

3.4.1. Academic

3.4.1.1. refers to collegiate environments where teaching and research activities take place

3.4.1.2. Academic community psychologists often have faculty appointments and teach at the collegiate level and/or engage in community-based participatory research or evaluation work

3.4.1.3. Typically receive formal graduate training

3.4.2. Practice/Applied

3.4.2.1. Environments that allow for the application of Community Psychology practice principles in an applied environment

3.4.2.2. Methods and approaches used in practice settings are based on previous research, community needs, and strengths

3.4.2.3. Examples

3.4.2.3.1. Non-profit organizations

3.4.2.3.2. Consulting and research firms

3.4.2.3.3. Government positions

3.4.2.3.4. Healthcare organizations

3.4.2.3.5. Educational sector opportunities

3.5. Mentorship

3.5.1. Mentors can help with guidance, support, and advice as you start your Community Psychology career

3.5.2. SCRA offers additional career support, such as the Early Career Interest Group or the Community Psychology Practice Council

3.6. GUEST SPEAKER

3.6.1. Our guest speaker for this module - Samantha McLean - she informed us of the City of Cincinnati Department of Planning. She gave us great advice on how to go about working in our community.

4. Chapter Four

4.1. International Community Psychology

4.1.1. Occurs when Community Psychology practitioners from one country work or train in a country other than their own

4.1.2. Why study it?

4.1.2.1. To deeply learn and enhance Community Psychology skills and values

4.1.2.2. Our world is becoming more and more interconnected

4.1.2.2.1. Technology

4.1.2.2.2. Globalization

4.1.2.3. To address global systems of injustice to prevent injustice at home

4.1.2.4. Community Psychology is growing fast outside of the United States

4.1.3. International research reveals unexpected parts the ecological model in which individuals live

4.1.4. International work teaches new attitudes and new ways of knowing and doing

4.2. Culture

4.2.1. Includes everything from the foods we eat to language, customs, symbols, artifacts, history, roles, beliefs, and arts

4.2.2. Large part of the ecological model in which individuals live

4.2.3. Cultural competence

4.3. Ethnocentrism

4.3.1. Belief that one's culture is more superior than another's

4.4. Colonialism

4.4.1. The act of invading culture establishing political and economic control over an indigenous people, who have been living there before the arrival of settlers

4.5. Imperialism

4.5.1. Political and economic control of one nation over another

4.6. Capitalism

4.6.1. An economic system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit

4.7. Heroism

4.7.1. When a person who engages with underprivileged, disadvantaged populations and delivers critical solutions or consultations

4.8. Doing Critical Community Psychology

4.8.1. Language barriers and communication

4.8.2. Finding collaborators

4.8.3. Differing political systems

4.8.4. Corruption

4.8.5. Feelings of privilege

4.8.6. Isolation, Inconvenience

4.9. Methods to gain practical skills

4.9.1. Humility and Learning

4.9.2. Cultural Humility

5. Chapter Five

5.1. Theory

5.1.1. Provides a way to contemplate and conceptualize the natural world

5.1.2. Help us explain, understand, and make predictions about a topic of interest

5.1.3. Why were they created?

5.1.3.1. Social context

5.1.3.2. Social change

5.1.3.3. Social setting

5.1.3.4. How to support human development

5.2. Behavior Setting Theory

5.2.1. Behavior setting is considered to be a place, a time, and a standing pattern of behavior

5.2.2. Main Findings

5.2.2.1. Settings generally have rules where any person within the same setting would act similarly; that people are interchangeable and you would still get the same behavior patterns

5.3. Ecological Theory

5.3.1. Developed in US in response to social unrest during civil rights movement

5.3.2. James Kelly examined how the physical characteristics of the environment of the community can play a central role in how individuals interact and relate to each other

5.3.3. Four ecological principles

5.3.3.1. Interdependence

5.3.3.1.1. Helps individuals to recognize that the development of relationships with others is central to building trust and cooperation, and that our behaviors have an effect and impact on others

5.3.3.2. Adaptation

5.3.3.2.1. Process of change and how people need to develop resilience as a means of adapting to constant change

5.3.3.3. Cycling of resources

5.3.3.3.1. Process of how communities may incorporate and utilize different types of skills that people possess and use them in a way that builds and strengthens communities

5.3.3.4. Succession

5.3.3.4.1. Process of change and development within the community which are inevitable, and communities have an obligation and need to help residents meet the demands of changing environments

5.4. Sense of Community Theory

5.4.1. Capture the feeling a person experiences when they perceive themselves having an interdependent connection with a broader community outside themselves

5.4.2. Four main components

5.4.2.1. Membership

5.4.2.1.1. Involves clear boundaries regarding who is in and who is out of the specific community

5.4.2.2. Influence

5.4.2.2.1. Ability one feels they have to influence the broader community and individual-level norms that guide the practices of the community

5.4.2.3. Integration and Fulfillment of Needs

5.4.2.3.1. Refers to feeling connected to a network that holds shared values, that exchanges resources, and meets needs

5.4.2.4. Shared Emotional Connection

5.4.2.4.1. Refers to participating in the celebrations of others, and participation in specified rituals or ceremonies

5.5. Social Climate Theory

5.5.1. Developed in an attempt to understand the natural interplay between individuals and their social contexts

5.5.2. Understand how people adapt to their social contexts, how they survive traumatizing contexts, and how contexts adapt to persons within that context

5.6. Liberation Psychology Theory

5.6.1. Develop an understanding of the psychologies of oppressed and impoverished communities

5.6.2. Praxis

5.6.2.1. Tool for acquiring knowledge and transforming oppressive realities involving a conscious integration of theory and practice to make theory more grounded in reality

5.6.3. Dialectics

5.6.3.1. Philosophy of praxis emphasizing that knowledge is not created unless acquired through a method of mediated social discourse

5.7. GUEST SPEAKER

5.7.1. Our guest speaker for this module- Ashley Simons-Rudolf- went into great detail about SCRA and provided us with the chance to do research and get a free students associate membership.

6. Chapter Eight

6.1. Respect for Diversity

6.2. Cultural Competence

6.2.1. Possessing the skills and knowledge of a culture in order to effectively work with individual members of the culture

6.3. Cultural Humility

6.3.1. Ability to remain open to learning about other cultures while acknowledging one’s own lack of competence and recognizing power dynamics that impact the relationship

6.4. Race

6.4.1. Observable physical or biological criteria, such as skin color, hair color or texture, facial features, etc.

6.5. Ethnicity

6.5.1. One’s social identity based on culture of origin, ancestry, or affiliation with a cultural group

6.6. Gender

6.6.1. Refers to the socially constructed perceptions of what it means to be male or female in our society and how those genders may be reflected and interpreted by society

6.6.2. Gender Identity

6.6.2.1. person’s inner psychological sense of being male, female, or another category

6.6.3. Gender Expression

6.6.3.1. Person’s external expression of being male, female, or other

6.7. Sex

6.7.1. Biological descriptor involving chromosomes and internal/external reproductive organs

6.8. Age

6.8.1. The developmental changes and transitions that comes with being a child, adolescent, or adult

6.9. Social Class

6.9.1. This dimension can include a person’s income or material wealth, educational status, and/or occupational status

6.9.2. Socially constructed and can affect our choices and opportunities

6.10. Sexual Orientation

6.10.1. A person’s emotional, romantic, erotic, and spiritual attractions toward another in relation to their own sex or gender

6.11. Disabilities

6.11.1. Visible or hidden and temporary or permanent conditions that provide barriers or challenges, and impact individuals of every age and social group

6.12. Religion

6.12.1. Shared systems of beliefs and values, symbols, feelings, actions, and experiences that often focus on relationships with the divine

6.13. Spirituality

6.13.1. Focuses on an individual’s relationship with a higher power and a quest for meaning

6.14. Intersectionality

6.14.1. The interaction of social identities and resulting impact of multiple privileges or inequities

6.15. Privilege

6.15.1. The unearned advantages that individuals have based on membership in a dominant group (e.g., race, gender, social class, sexual orientation, ability), contribute to the systems of oppression for non- privileged individuals and groups

6.16. GUEST SPEAKER

6.16.1. The guest speaker for this module - Tim Vogt- informed us of many of these definitions. He also spoke about the LGBTQ+ community and how important it is to respect this community and value the differences they bring. He also spoke on person's with disabilities and how important it is to respect these individuals as well.

7. Chapter Nine

7.1. Oppression

7.1.1. Unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power especially by the imposition of burdens

7.1.2. The feeling & condition of being “pressed down” through social acts of restriction

7.1.3. Oppression advances power because it maintains intersecting systems of power in the hands of the powerful

7.2. Psychological Implications of Oppression

7.2.1. Emotional implications include exclusion, exploitation, control, and violence

7.2.2. Impact of erasure and removal of intrinsic cultural identities

7.2.3. Initially, “avoidance reactions”

7.2.4. Internalized racism and assimilation

7.2.5. Oppression is not a static concept

7.3. Power

7.3.1. Power over

7.3.1.1. The ability to compel or dominate others, control resources, and enforce commands

7.3.2. Power to

7.3.2.1. The ability of people to pursue personal and/or collective goals and to develop their own capacities

7.3.3. Power from

7.3.3.1. The ability to resist coercion and unwanted commands/demands

7.3.4. Language as power

7.3.4.1. Knowledge is always related to systems of power

7.3.4.2. Power is tied to control over and access to information

7.3.5. Colonialism as Power

7.3.5.1. Political, economic, and military controls are largely maintained within these nations by the colonizers

7.3.5.2. This suppression and domination are justified

7.4. Dismantling oppression and power

7.4.1. Liberation

7.4.1.1. Deconstruction and reclaiming power

7.4.1.2. Social, cultural, economic and political freedom and emancipation to have agency, control, and power over one’s life

7.4.2. Decoloniality

7.4.2.1. A process of undoing, disrupting and de-linking knowledge that ignores or devalues the local knowledge, experiences, and expertise

7.4.2.2. Deconstructing Euro-centric/Western ideologies and practices that uphold coloniality

7.4.3. Black Feminist Thought

7.4.3.1. Intersectionality provides a lens for re-conceptualizing race, along with other categories of difference and positions of power; beyond identity politics

7.4.4. Systems Perspective

7.4.4.1. Behavior is networked; each system is defined in social relationships surrounding a targeted individual; different levels relate to one another

7.4.4.2. Dismantling power and oppression is a difficult task that requires a community systems approach