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Environmental Science version 0.8 by Mind Map: Environmental Science
version 0.8
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Environmental Science version 0.8

Earth's spheres


Biodiversity, Miller Ch. 4, Species diversity/richness, Biodiversity Lab, Genetic diversity, Functional diversity, Ecological diversity

Ecology, Miller Ch. 3, ways of looking at ecology, Productivity, Net Primary Production Lab, Succession, Habitats, Aquatic Ecosystems, Miller Ch. 6, 12, Benthic Macroinvertebrate Lab, Benthic macroinvertebrate guides, Closed Ecosystem Analysis, Terrestrial Ecosystems, Miller Ch. 5, 10, Population Ecology, Miller Ch. 8, Human Population, Miller Ch. 9, Age Structure Activity, Baby boom, Wildlife management, Miller Ch.11, Clam population lab, ways of looking at population, Distribution, Clumped, Uniform, Random, Numbers, Variables, Births, Deaths, Immigration, Emigration, Population = n, Intrinsic rate of increase = r, Carrying capacity = k, Age structure, k-selected, r-selected, Food webs, Food web presentations, Biomass, Biomass energy, Trophic levels, Producer, Primary consumer, Secondary consumer, Tertiary consumer, Decomposer, Cycles, Matter cycle presentations, Scale vs. Resolution, Organism, Species, Population, Biological Community, Ecosystem, A biological community that interacts with nonliving systems, Biome, Boreal forest, Chapparal, Biosphere

Toxicity and Pollution, Miller Ch. 18, LD50 Lab, Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification, Silent Spring, Pest control, Biological control, Chemical control, Integrated pest management


Miller Ch. 15, Rocks and minerals, Lithospheric mineral resources, Mining, Pollution, Acid mine drainage, Techniques, Hazards, Identifying rocks and minerals, How rocks are made, Plate Tectonics, Weathering, Rock weathering mini-lab, Erosion and transportation, Geologic Evidence, Washington Geology, Regions within Washington, Geologic Hazards, Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Landslides, etc., The Rock Record, Sedimentary rocks, Sediment transportation lab

Lithospheric energy resources, Miller Ch. 16-17, Coal, oil and natural gas, Personal Energy Use Assessment

Soil resources, Miller Ch. 13, Soil Pit, soil horizons, Agriculture and land use, Soil nutrients, Soil nutrient lab, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, pH, Can be from fertilizers


Air pollution, Tropospheric, Miller Ch. 19, Air pollution presentations, Particulates, Sock mini-lab, Particulate lab, Smog, Photochemical, Orange, Primary pollutants, VOCs, Nitrogen oxides, Sulfur oxides, Secondary pollutants, Ozone, Nitric acid, Sulfuric acid, Acid deposition, Wet, Dry, Industrial, Grey, Carbon monixide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon, Miller Ch. 20, Greenhouse gases, Water vapor, not directly anthropogenic, from burning fossil fuels, Carbon Dioxide, as main greenhouse gas, An Inconvenient Truth, Greenhouse temperature model mini-lab, Carbon Scrubber Lab, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Ozone, CFCs, Global warming, aka climate change, Regional Scales, Global scales, Infrared radiation, Mostly anthrophogenic, Ecological effects, Miller Ch. 19, Indoor, Carbon monoxide, VOCs, Radon, Cigarette smoke, Particulates, Stratospheric, Miller Ch. 20, Ozone depletion, CFCs, UV radiation, Completely anthropogenic

Weather and climate, Pacific Northwest Weather and climate, Global climate


Resources, Miller Ch. 14, Freshwater, Not a lot of Earth's water is fresh, Most of this is ice, Most of what's not ice is groundwater, Very little of this is surface freshwater, almost 40% of that is in Lakes Baikal and Superior, As a resource for life, Humans, Food source, Water posters, Drinking water, Sanitation, Ecosystems, Energy resource, Hydropower, Transportation/shipping, Marine, The vast majority of Earth's water, As a resource for life, Humans, Food source, Ecosystems, Transportation/shipping, Frail Ocean jigsaw reading

Pollution, Miller Ch. 21, Freshwater, Sources, Point, Industry, Municipal wastewater, Nonpoint, Cars, Septic tanks, Treatment, Assessment, Water pollutants/measures of quality, pH, Dissolved oxygen, Biochemical oxygen demand, Fecal coliform bacteria, Nitrates, Phosphates, Turbidity, Dissolved solids, Temperature change, Presentations, WQI Lab, Marine, Frail Ocean jogsaw reading

Water cycle, Miller Ch. 14


Solid waste, Miller Ch. 22, Municpal, Waste Inventory Lab, Decomposition Lab, The waste stream, Recycling, Composting, Hazardous, Landfills, Incineration, Landfills, The five "Rs", Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, Recycle, Industrial

Human health, Miller Ch. 18, Two ways to look at this, Disease caused by environmental issues, Disease as an environmental issue, Kinds of disease, Transmissable, Nontransmissable, Genetic, Caused by environmental factors, Human health investigation, Malaria Socratic Seminar

Sustainability, Concepts of sustainability, "All" energy is solar, Thermodynamics (energy transfers), Energy cannot be created or destroyed, Energy transfers degrade the "quality" of energy, Biological sustainability, Population/carrying capacity, Biodiversity, Nutrient recycling, Footprints, Carbon footprint, Ecological footprint, quiz, Sustainable cities, Miller Ch. 23, Sustainable Seattle activity, Mike Mann, Dept. of Environment and Sustainability

Environmental worldviews/philosophies, Miller Ch. 26, Human-centered, Life/earth-centered, Deep ecology, Ecofeminism, Sallie McFague, Ecospirituality

Political and economic systems, Miller Ch. 24-25, (integrated into Atmosphere Unit), Poliitical systems, Environmental Lobby Day, Environmental Laws, Economic systems, Costs and benefits, Atmosphere Unit Assessment Socratic Seminar, Incentives and disincentives, Cap-and-trade system

Cycles of matter and energy

Miller Ch. 3

Geochemical cycles Reservoirs are bold Processes are italic, Water, Atmosphere, Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, Hydrosphere, Lakes, Oceans, Ice, Snow, Runoff, Infiltration/percolation, Lithosphere, Groundwater, Rocks (hydrated minerals), Subduction, Volcanism, Biosphere, Uptake, Evapotranspiration, Carbon, Ocean water, Diffusion, Respiration, Photosynthesis, Marine sediments/rocks, Limestone, Fossil fuels, Uplift, Weathering, Troposphere, Food webs (biomass), Combustion, Nitrogen, Soils, Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Uptake, Ammonification, Nitrification, Food webs (biomass), Decomposition, Denitrification, Atmosphere, Nitrogen fixation, Fertilizers, Phosphorus, Fertilizer, Food webs, Guano, Dissolved in water, Sediments and rocks, Agriculture, Uptake, Decomposition, Sedimentation, Mining, Weathering, Sulfur (beta branch), Untitled, Rock, Lithosphere, Sedimentary rocks, Weathering, Erosion and transportation, Deposition, Sedimentation, Igneous rocks, Burial, Melting, Cooling, Uplift, Volcanism, Metamorphic rocks, Pressurization, Heating

Energy inputs/outputs

Issues and solutions

Laws, treaties, government Important laws are bold

Federal, General Mining Act, 1872, Allows prospecting and claims on Federal public lands, National Forests, Established 1891, Gifford Pinchot, Agricultural intent, multi-use today, National Parks, Created 1916, Stephen Mather, Yellowstone: World's first National Park, 1872, Includes parks, monuments, recreation areas, etc., Preservation and recreation, Migratory Bird Act, 1918, Considered "first" major environmental law, Prevents taking/killing/posessing migratory birds, Taylor Grazing Act, 1934, Intended to control grazing of livestock on Federal lands, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, 1947, Gave Federal Department of Agricultre regulatory authority, Transferred to Environmental Protection Agency in 1972, Wilderness Act, 1964, Protects areas "untrammeled by man", National Environmental Policy Act, 1969, Established requirement for Environmental Imact Statements, Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1970, Created administration of same name under Labor Department, Prevention of work-related injury, death, illness, Environmental Protection Agency, 1970, Created by President Richard Nixon by executive order, Marine Mammal Protection Act, 1972, All U.S. marine mammals are protected, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 1972, Federal government can regulate pollution on navigable waterways, Safe Drinking Water Act, 1974, Established standards for public water systems, Toxic Substances Control Act, 1976, Gives EPA authority to regulate many chemicals, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 1976, Governs disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, Clean Water Act, 1977, Revised and strengthened, Soil and Water Conservation Act, 1977, Created soil and water conservation districts under the Federal Department of Agriculture, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 1980, Enacted in respose to Love Canal, a.k.a. Superfund, Establishes liability for pollution and a fund to clean up when liable parties can't pay or can't be found, Clean Air Act, 1990, Tropospheric air pollution regulated, CFCs regulated, EPA may regulate carbon dioxide under this act, Pollution Prevention Act, 1990, Aims to reduce waste at the source, Healthy Forests Initiative, 2003, official name: Healthy Forests Restoration Act, Selective logging to prevent wildfires, Energy Policy Acts, 1992 and 2005, Energy policy gives tax incentives for various kinds of energy production, Agricultural Transport Laws, Various years, Intended to prevent spread of pests

State, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, dates to 1890 (fish), Depts. of Fish and Wildlife merged in 1994, Manages fish and wildlife populations, State Environmental Policy Act, 1971, Requires state/local agencies to consider environmental consequences, Washington Department of Ecology, Established 1971, Jurisdiction over state pollution issues, In particular Puget Sound, Others, Washington Department of Health, 1989, Public health, Diseases (epidemics), Public health clinics, Oversees physicians, Monitors toxins, Washington state's initiative process, Process by which citizens can propose and enact laws, Responsible for various environmental legislation

International, Treaties with Native American tribes, Various years, mostly 1800s, Various legal effects, Example: Treaty of Medicine Creek gave Northwest Tribes right to fish "in common", Upheld by Boldt (fish) and Rafeedie (shellfish) decisions, Montreal Protocol, Signed 1987, enforced 1989, Regulates/bans ozone-destroying CFCs, North American Free Trade Agreement, 1994, Establishes free-trade zone between U.S., Canada and Mexico, Kyoto Protocol, Written 1997, enforced 2005, goals for 2012, a.k.a. Kyoto Accords, Regulates greenhouse gas emissions, Target of 6% below 1990 levels, Establishes cap and trade system, U.S. is signatory but has not ratified it

Other, Mayors Climate Protection Agreement, 2005, Response to U.S. nonparticipation in Kyoto, Launched by Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels, Cities meet Kyoto targets

Anthropogenic Problems (beta branch)

Web links

Course links

The Source

Assignment Blog

Other links

Google Docs

Textbook site

AP Environmental Science (College Board)

Olympic Park Institute

Scientific Inquiry (beta branch)





Explanation of this concept map (click to expand)

How to read it

Key, Key terms are green with check marks, Or just have check marks, Readings are red, Lab investigations are cyan, Other activities are purple, Link arrows, Connect related concepts in most topics, Show inputs/outputs in cycles

Using the browser, There are buttons at the top of the page that tell you what they do when you mouse over them, The rightmost button can change the background color; if you make it grey you can see the linking arrows, Drag it around, zoom with the mouse wheel, Web links need to be copied and pasted in Flash viewer

Development notes: This concept map is NOT complete! Version 0.5 was e-mailed to Environmental Science students on 5/2 as a pdf Subsequent versions may have the following features:

0.6 Editable by students who download Freemind software

0.7 html format

0.8 Interactive as Flash applet from local computers

0.9 Printed version (not necessarily a handout for everyone)

1.0 Interactive as a Flash or Java applet embedded on a published Web page

2.0 Complete

What is this?

This concept map was made in Freemind, Download at

Browswer is Freemind Flash Viewier