Environmental Science version 0.8

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Environmental Science version 0.8 by Mind Map: Environmental Science version 0.8

1. Earth's spheres

1.1. Biosphere

1.1.1. Biodiversity

1.1.1.1. Miller Ch. 4

1.1.1.1.1. Species diversity/richness

1.1.1.1.2. Genetic diversity

1.1.1.1.3. Functional diversity

1.1.1.1.4. Ecological diversity

1.1.2. Ecology

1.1.2.1. Miller Ch. 3

1.1.2.1.1. ways of looking at ecology

1.1.2.1.2. Scale vs. Resolution

1.1.3. Toxicity and Pollution

1.1.3.1. Miller Ch. 18

1.1.3.1.1. LD50 Lab

1.1.3.1.2. Bioaccumulation

1.1.3.1.3. Biomagnification

1.1.3.2. Silent Spring

1.1.3.2.1. Pest control

1.2. Lithosphere

1.2.1. Miller Ch. 15

1.2.1.1. Rocks and minerals

1.2.1.1.1. Lithospheric mineral resources

1.2.1.1.2. Identifying rocks and minerals

1.2.1.1.3. Weathering

1.2.1.2. Geologic Evidence

1.2.1.2.1. Washington Geology

1.2.1.2.2. The Rock Record

1.2.2. Lithospheric energy resources

1.2.2.1. Miller Ch. 16-17

1.2.2.1.1. Coal, oil and natural gas

1.2.2.1.2. Personal Energy Use Assessment

1.2.3. Soil resources

1.2.3.1. Miller Ch. 13

1.2.3.1.1. Soil Pit, soil horizons

1.2.3.1.2. Agriculture and land use

1.2.3.1.3. Soil nutrients

1.3. Atmosphere

1.3.1. Air pollution

1.3.1.1. Tropospheric

1.3.1.1.1. Miller Ch. 19

1.3.1.1.2. Miller Ch. 20

1.3.1.2. Miller Ch. 19

1.3.1.2.1. Indoor

1.3.1.3. Stratospheric

1.3.1.3.1. Miller Ch. 20

1.3.2. Weather and climate

1.3.2.1. Pacific Northwest Weather and climate

1.3.2.2. Global climate

1.4. Hydrosphere

1.4.1. Resources

1.4.1.1. Miller Ch. 14

1.4.1.1.1. Freshwater

1.4.1.1.2. Marine

1.4.2. Pollution

1.4.2.1. Miller Ch. 21

1.4.2.1.1. Freshwater

1.4.2.1.2. Marine

1.4.3. Water cycle

1.4.3.1. Miller Ch. 14

1.5. Anthrosphere

1.5.1. Solid waste

1.5.1.1. Miller Ch. 22

1.5.1.1.1. Municpal

1.5.1.1.2. Industrial

1.5.2. Human health

1.5.2.1. Miller Ch. 18

1.5.2.1.1. Two ways to look at this

1.5.2.1.2. Kinds of disease

1.5.2.1.3. Human health investigation

1.5.2.1.4. Malaria Socratic Seminar

1.5.3. Sustainability

1.5.3.1. Concepts of sustainability

1.5.3.1.1. "All" energy is solar

1.5.3.1.2. Thermodynamics (energy transfers)

1.5.3.1.3. Biological sustainability

1.5.3.1.4. Nutrient recycling

1.5.3.2. Footprints

1.5.3.2.1. Carbon footprint

1.5.3.2.2. Ecological footprint

1.5.3.3. Sustainable cities

1.5.3.3.1. Miller Ch. 23

1.5.4. Environmental worldviews/philosophies

1.5.4.1. Miller Ch. 26

1.5.4.1.1. Human-centered

1.5.4.1.2. Life/earth-centered

1.5.4.1.3. Deep ecology

1.5.4.1.4. Ecofeminism

1.5.4.1.5. Ecospirituality

1.5.5. Political and economic systems

1.5.5.1. Miller Ch. 24-25

1.5.5.1.1. (integrated into Atmosphere Unit)

1.5.5.1.2. Poliitical systems

1.5.5.1.3. Economic systems

2. Cycles of matter and energy

2.1. Miller Ch. 3

2.1.1. Geochemical cycles Reservoirs are bold Processes are italic

2.1.1.1. Water

2.1.1.1.1. Atmosphere

2.1.1.1.2. Evaporation

2.1.1.1.3. Condensation

2.1.1.1.4. Precipitation

2.1.1.1.5. Hydrosphere

2.1.1.1.6. Infiltration/percolation

2.1.1.1.7. Lithosphere

2.1.1.1.8. Subduction

2.1.1.1.9. Volcanism

2.1.1.1.10. Biosphere

2.1.1.1.11. Uptake

2.1.1.1.12. Evapotranspiration

2.1.1.2. Carbon

2.1.1.2.1. Ocean water

2.1.1.2.2. Diffusion

2.1.1.2.3. Respiration

2.1.1.2.4. Photosynthesis

2.1.1.2.5. Marine sediments/rocks

2.1.1.2.6. Troposphere

2.1.1.2.7. Food webs (biomass)

2.1.1.2.8. Combustion

2.1.1.3. Nitrogen

2.1.1.3.1. Soils

2.1.1.3.2. Food webs (biomass)

2.1.1.3.3. Decomposition

2.1.1.3.4. Denitrification

2.1.1.3.5. Atmosphere

2.1.1.3.6. Nitrogen fixation

2.1.1.3.7. Fertilizers

2.1.1.4. Phosphorus

2.1.1.4.1. Fertilizer

2.1.1.4.2. Food webs

2.1.1.4.3. Guano

2.1.1.4.4. Dissolved in water

2.1.1.4.5. Sediments and rocks

2.1.1.4.6. Agriculture

2.1.1.4.7. Uptake

2.1.1.4.8. Decomposition

2.1.1.4.9. Sedimentation

2.1.1.4.10. Mining

2.1.1.4.11. Weathering

2.1.1.5. Sulfur (beta branch)

2.1.1.5.1. Untitled

2.1.1.6. Rock

2.1.1.6.1. Lithosphere

2.2. Energy inputs/outputs

3. Issues and solutions

3.1. Laws, treaties, government Important laws are bold

3.1.1. Federal

3.1.1.1. General Mining Act

3.1.1.1.1. 1872

3.1.1.1.2. Allows prospecting and claims on Federal public lands

3.1.1.2. National Forests

3.1.1.2.1. Established 1891

3.1.1.2.2. Gifford Pinchot

3.1.1.2.3. Agricultural intent, multi-use today

3.1.1.3. National Parks

3.1.1.3.1. Created 1916

3.1.1.3.2. Stephen Mather

3.1.1.3.3. Yellowstone: World's first National Park, 1872

3.1.1.3.4. Includes parks, monuments, recreation areas, etc.

3.1.1.3.5. Preservation and recreation

3.1.1.4. Migratory Bird Act

3.1.1.4.1. 1918

3.1.1.4.2. Considered "first" major environmental law

3.1.1.4.3. Prevents taking/killing/posessing migratory birds

3.1.1.5. Taylor Grazing Act

3.1.1.5.1. 1934

3.1.1.5.2. Intended to control grazing of livestock on Federal lands

3.1.1.6. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

3.1.1.6.1. 1947

3.1.1.6.2. Gave Federal Department of Agricultre regulatory authority

3.1.1.6.3. Transferred to Environmental Protection Agency in 1972

3.1.1.7. Wilderness Act

3.1.1.7.1. 1964

3.1.1.7.2. Protects areas "untrammeled by man"

3.1.1.8. National Environmental Policy Act

3.1.1.8.1. 1969

3.1.1.8.2. Established requirement for Environmental Imact Statements

3.1.1.9. Occupational Health and Safety Act

3.1.1.9.1. 1970

3.1.1.9.2. Created administration of same name under Labor Department

3.1.1.9.3. Prevention of work-related injury, death, illness

3.1.1.10. Environmental Protection Agency

3.1.1.10.1. 1970

3.1.1.10.2. Created by President Richard Nixon by executive order

3.1.1.11. Marine Mammal Protection Act

3.1.1.11.1. 1972

3.1.1.11.2. All U.S. marine mammals are protected

3.1.1.12. Federal Water Pollution Control Act

3.1.1.12.1. 1972

3.1.1.12.2. Federal government can regulate pollution on navigable waterways

3.1.1.13. Safe Drinking Water Act

3.1.1.13.1. 1974

3.1.1.13.2. Established standards for public water systems

3.1.1.14. Toxic Substances Control Act

3.1.1.14.1. 1976

3.1.1.14.2. Gives EPA authority to regulate many chemicals

3.1.1.15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

3.1.1.15.1. 1976

3.1.1.15.2. Governs disposal of solid and hazardous wastes

3.1.1.16. Clean Water Act

3.1.1.16.1. 1977

3.1.1.16.2. Revised and strengthened

3.1.1.17. Soil and Water Conservation Act

3.1.1.17.1. 1977

3.1.1.17.2. Created soil and water conservation districts under the Federal Department of Agriculture

3.1.1.18. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

3.1.1.18.1. 1980

3.1.1.18.2. Enacted in respose to Love Canal

3.1.1.18.3. a.k.a. Superfund

3.1.1.18.4. Establishes liability for pollution and a fund to clean up when liable parties can't pay or can't be found

3.1.1.19. Clean Air Act

3.1.1.19.1. 1990

3.1.1.19.2. Tropospheric air pollution regulated

3.1.1.19.3. CFCs regulated

3.1.1.19.4. EPA may regulate carbon dioxide under this act

3.1.1.20. Pollution Prevention Act

3.1.1.20.1. 1990

3.1.1.20.2. Aims to reduce waste at the source

3.1.1.21. Healthy Forests Initiative

3.1.1.21.1. 2003

3.1.1.21.2. official name: Healthy Forests Restoration Act

3.1.1.21.3. Selective logging to prevent wildfires

3.1.1.22. Energy Policy Acts

3.1.1.22.1. 1992 and 2005

3.1.1.22.2. Energy policy gives tax incentives for various kinds of energy production

3.1.1.23. Agricultural Transport Laws

3.1.1.23.1. Various years

3.1.1.23.2. Intended to prevent spread of pests

3.1.2. State

3.1.2.1. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

3.1.2.1.1. dates to 1890 (fish)

3.1.2.1.2. Depts. of Fish and Wildlife merged in 1994

3.1.2.1.3. Manages fish and wildlife populations

3.1.2.2. State Environmental Policy Act

3.1.2.2.1. 1971

3.1.2.2.2. Requires state/local agencies to consider environmental consequences

3.1.2.3. Washington Department of Ecology

3.1.2.3.1. Established 1971

3.1.2.3.2. Jurisdiction over state pollution issues

3.1.2.4. Washington Department of Health

3.1.2.4.1. 1989

3.1.2.4.2. Public health

3.1.2.5. Washington state's initiative process

3.1.2.5.1. Process by which citizens can propose and enact laws

3.1.2.5.2. Responsible for various environmental legislation

3.1.3. International

3.1.3.1. Treaties with Native American tribes

3.1.3.1.1. Various years, mostly 1800s

3.1.3.1.2. Various legal effects

3.1.3.2. Montreal Protocol

3.1.3.2.1. Signed 1987, enforced 1989

3.1.3.2.2. Regulates/bans ozone-destroying CFCs

3.1.3.3. North American Free Trade Agreement

3.1.3.3.1. 1994

3.1.3.3.2. Establishes free-trade zone between U.S., Canada and Mexico

3.1.3.4. Kyoto Protocol

3.1.3.4.1. Written 1997, enforced 2005, goals for 2012

3.1.3.4.2. a.k.a. Kyoto Accords

3.1.3.4.3. Regulates greenhouse gas emissions

3.1.3.4.4. U.S. is signatory but has not ratified it

3.1.4. Other

3.1.4.1. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement

3.1.4.1.1. 2005

3.1.4.1.2. Response to U.S. nonparticipation in Kyoto

3.1.4.1.3. Launched by Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels

3.1.4.1.4. Cities meet Kyoto targets

3.2. Anthropogenic Problems (beta branch)

4. Web links

4.1. Course links

4.1.1. The Source

4.1.2. Assignment Blog

4.2. Other links

4.2.1. Google Docs

4.2.2. Textbook site

4.2.3. AP Environmental Science (College Board)

4.2.4. Olympic Park Institute

5. Scientific Inquiry (beta branch)

5.1. Observing

5.2. Hypothesizing

5.3. Testing

5.4. Untitled

6. Explanation of this concept map (click to expand)

6.1. How to read it

6.1.1. Key

6.1.1.1. Key terms are green with check marks

6.1.1.1.1. Or just have check marks

6.1.1.2. Readings are red

6.1.1.3. Lab investigations are cyan

6.1.1.4. Other activities are purple

6.1.1.5. Link arrows

6.1.1.5.1. Connect related concepts in most topics

6.1.1.5.2. Show inputs/outputs in cycles

6.1.2. Using the browser

6.1.2.1. There are buttons at the top of the page that tell you what they do when you mouse over them

6.1.2.1.1. The rightmost button can change the background color; if you make it grey you can see the linking arrows

6.1.2.2. Drag it around, zoom with the mouse wheel

6.1.2.3. Web links need to be copied and pasted in Flash viewer

6.2. Development notes: This concept map is NOT complete! Version 0.5 was e-mailed to Environmental Science students on 5/2 as a pdf Subsequent versions may have the following features:

6.2.1. 0.6 Editable by students who download Freemind software

6.2.2. 0.7 html format

6.2.3. 0.8 Interactive as Flash applet from local computers

6.2.4. 0.9 Printed version (not necessarily a handout for everyone)

6.2.5. 1.0 Interactive as a Flash or Java applet embedded on a published Web page

6.2.6. 2.0 Complete

6.3. What is this?

6.3.1. This concept map was made in Freemind

6.3.1.1. Download at freemind.sourceforge.net

6.3.2. Browswer is Freemind Flash Viewier