Air pollution and human health in HK - why it matters

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Air pollution and human health in HK - why it matters by Mind Map: Air pollution and human health in HK - why it matters

1. 2. Cause of Air Pollution in HK

1.1. Major Air Pollutants

1.1.1. SO2, NOx, VOC, CO, PM2.5, PM10

1.2. Major Sources (EDP, 2021)

1.2.1. Electricity Generation: major contributor to SO2, NOx and RSP emissions

1.2.2. Road Transport: major contributor to NOx, VOC and CO emissions

1.2.2.1. Total vehicle: 809441 (High density)

1.2.3. Marine Transport: (marine emissions have now become the major emission source in Hong Kong)

1.3. Comparison with other countries

1.3.1. E.g. 2,990 tonnes (PM2.5), less than the UK per capita, but more per land area. (EDP, 2021)

2. 1. Background Information

2.1. How serious the air quality problem is currently?

2.1.1. Hong Kong air pollution hits highest mark at ‘serious’ level (AQHI) in parts of city in mid-September (Low, 2021)

2.2. How the air pollution affect the us and the environment?

2.2.1. Health Impacts: Irritation of the respiratory system etc. (MassDEP, n.d.)

2.2.2. Environmental Impacts: Acid rain, Effects on wildlife, haze etc. (MassDEP, n.d.)

2.3. Social and economic effects?

2.3.1. The experience of air pollution can trigger existential anxiety about one’s health and future. (Lu, 2020)

3. 4. Call For Action

3.1. Citizens

3.1.1. For Drivers

3.1.1.1. Replace petrol-driven cars by electric cars

3.1.1.2. Choose to take public transport if possible

3.1.2. For All Citizens

3.1.2.1. Reduce power usage --> less electricity generated --> less pollutants emitted

4. 3. How the air quality affect our health

4.1. Associations between hospital admissions and air pollution (concentrations of NO2, SO2, O3, PM10) (Wong et al., 1999)

4.1.1. respiratory diseases

4.1.2. cardiovascular diseases

4.1.3. chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

4.1.4. heart failure

4.2. Long-term exposure to high levels of PM2.5 (Qiu et al., 2018)

4.2.1. increase the risk of prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes

4.3. Introducing AQHI (Air Quality Health Index)

4.3.1. short-term health risk of air pollution

4.3.2. precautionary measures to protect our health