Policing In Whitechapel

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Policing In Whitechapel by Mind Map: Policing In Whitechapel

1. Officers from H had to lhad lived in Whitechapel as they would know police and officers really well- not to mention the area

2. Abberline

2.1. In charge of H division at the time of the murders

2.1.1. promoted but then seconded back to H division after the Nichols murder. In charge again

2.2. Had experience at Scotland Yard and in Whitechapel itself. Knows layout

3. Warren (Lead Chief inspector)

3.1. resigned which delayed the investigation of Mary Jane Kelly.

3.1.1. Criticised by press because of his obsession with uniform among other things

3.1.1.1. Bad relationship with the Home Secretary because of contrasting political views and the fact Matthews wouldn't let the police offer a reward

3.1.2. police brutality- Trafalgar Square incident also arrested respectable lady for prostitution- wrongful arrest

4. Henderson (Police Comissioner before Warren)

4.1. Gave police the right to vote

4.1.1. More pay for police-raised numbers

4.1.1.1. manhandled Trafalgar Square incident

4.1.2. Allowed facial hair

5. Victims of Jack the Ripper

5.1. Annie Chapman

5.2. Elizabeth Stride

5.3. Polly Nicholls

5.4. Catherine Eddowes

5.5. Mary Jane Kelly

6. Investigation of the crime (methods)

6.1. Following Witness statements

6.1.1. There were very few key witnesses. Elizabeth Long saw a man talking to Annie Chapman.

6.1.2. conducted full scale search of all lodging houses near the location of the bodies.

6.1.2.1. Door to door policing with handouts

6.1.2.2. Murders happened in secluded areas

6.1.3. Suggested a gang from Bethnal Green-stole prostitutes' money- was to blame. not true

6.2. Crime scene

6.2.1. Moved body as quick as possible with no onlookers around

6.2.2. No disturbed evidence although officers stepped in blood. noticed patterns of blood splatters

6.2.3. Sketch of the body was taken and photos-direct position.

6.3. Women dressed as prostitutes working with police

6.3.1. only approached by people looking for business

6.4. Bloodhounds

6.4.1. smell of streets and slaughterhouses hindered smell

6.4.1.1. Ridiculed by press. Stopped paying dog owners

6.5. Identification Parades

6.5.1. Pearly Poll drunk at time of murder and parade happened a week afterwards

6.6. Visiting asylums

6.6.1. Assumed Ripper was insane

6.7. Soup kitchens

6.7.1. Home Secretary Matthews said that police were not allowed to offer rewards

6.8. Using evidence from post mortems

6.8.1. Llewellyn suggested Ripper was left handed because of stab patterns. Ripper knew anatomy.

6.8.1.1. Could only estimate time of death based on temperature of the body

6.9. direct leads from articles by investigating journalists

6.9.1. Manchester Guardian said the Ripper was the 'Leather Apron' but this was John Pizer and had a solid alabi

7. Organisation Of The Police

7.1. H division was the division that worked in Whitechapel

7.1.1. Fredrick Abberline was in charge at the time of the Ripper murders.

7.2. Beats had very specific timing so if there was an emergency, then a sergeant would go to the spot where the officer was supposed to be and alert the officer

7.2.1. 30 minutes a day and 15 minutes at night

7.2.1.1. keep regular pace

7.3. Lemon Street was main station for H division.

7.3.1. most records have not survived but the 1881 census available.

7.3.1.1. 2 sergeants and 42 constables stayed there on the night of the census

7.4. two weeks of military style training and a week following a constable on the beat.

7.5. Thames Police Court was the court for the whole area of Whitechapel

7.5.1. usually for minor cases (theft, assault, forgery etc)

7.5.1.1. The Old Bailey Court more common for Major Crimes

7.5.2. No records of what was said in the courts but the court register shows cases, witnesses, defendants etc

7.6. CID- Criminal/ Central Investigation Division 1842 in Scotland yard

7.6.1. Inspired by Parisian Police

7.6.2. Henderson expanded this to other divisions in 1870- did not go well

7.6.3. Improved pay to get more men

7.6.4. plain clothed officers used

7.6.5. took witness statements

8. Living conditions in Whitechapel

8.1. Booth's poverty map

8.1.1. Red=rich blue=serious poverty black = criminal poverty

8.1.1.1. percentage of Jewish population

8.2. Lodging houses. charged for the night 1/4 of population lived in these.

8.2.1. Penny hangovers (rope/hammock to lie on. cost a penny)

8.2.2. large groups of them are called rookeries-slums.

8.2.3. Coffin beds

8.3. Workhouses

8.3.1. work for a place to stay- picking oakum

8.3.2. separate places for man, women and children- families separated

8.4. Peabody Estate

8.4.1. Clean and ventilated.

8.4.2. rent not high but too most people too poor to afford rent. no rent= kicked out

9. Problems of Policing in Whitechapel

9.1. Some tasks police dealt with came into conflict with residents

9.1.1. criminal gangs. Irish, Jewish etc

9.1.2. witnesses too drunk to remember useful information. EG Pearly Poll at the ID parade.

9.2. Officers drank on duty

9.2.1. pub owners left beer on window ledge for officers-bribe.

9.3. The press

9.3.1. ridiculed because of their inability to catch The Ripper

9.3.2. press received letters from 'the ripper'

9.3.2.1. sensationalised murders to create mass hysteria and panic-report about that.

9.4. maze of alleyways.

9.4.1. Police went on beats alone

9.4.1.1. criminals memorized the pattern of the beats to suit their crimes

9.4.2. plenty of holes to hide in

9.4.3. police didn't go into these alone

9.4.3.1. lack of police

9.5. Public distrust of police

9.5.1. let to George Lusk founding the vigilance committee

9.5.1.1. independent from the police

9.5.1.2. Able to offer rewards for information unlike the police

10. Race relations

10.1. Eastern European Jews

10.1.1. Most only spoke Yiddish

10.1.2. Ran sweatshops- worked on Sundays (Catholic sabbath day)

10.1.3. "The jewes are the men that will not be blamed for nothing"

10.2. Irish Immigrants

10.2.1. Worked in docks or Bell Foundry. Not well liked-alcohol

10.2.2. Tensions high with Jews

10.3. Fenians

10.3.1. Irish Terrorist group. All Irish seen as fenians

10.4. Socialists

10.4.1. Potentially revolutionary group. Eastern European