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Semiotics by Mind Map: Semiotics
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famous linguists

de Saussure

a sign, two elements, signified, concept, arbitrary, signifier, word, New Idea, relationship, signification, types of signs, symbol, signifier is arbitrary (no direct relationship), traffic lights, national flags, numbers, language, icon, imitation of the signified (similar to it), a cartoon, metaphors, sound effects, e.g. the school bell, imitative gestures, onomatopoeia, looks, smells, sounds, feels or tastes like the signified, index, signifier is not arbitrary (natural link), medical symptoms, e.g. cough indicates a common cold, measuring instruments, e.g. thermometer indicates temperature, personal 'trademarks', 'natural' signs, e.g. smoke as an index of fire

"langue", not visual part of a language, the inner knowledge of the system

"parole", the perceptible part of language, a concret statement


a sign, "nothing is a sign unless it is interpreted as a sign", an interpreter is needed to give meaning to a sign



sound, linguistic usage, speech (as a primary manifestation of language), different languages, non-linguistic usage, physiological reflexes, snoring, coughing, groaning, musical effects, whistling, voice quality, communication of identity, natural sounds, blowing of wind, water, lapping, waves, waterfall, rain, animal sounds, artificial sounds, sounds produced by electricity, ring tones, siren as a sign of danger, door bell, alarm clock, bells, church, tell us the time


sight, linguistic usage, deaf communication, lip-reading, sign language, different conventions depending on country and region, historically derivative usage, writing, writing based codes, morse, semaphore, non-linguistic usage, kinesies, facial expression, bodily gesture, hand signals, waving hands, the V sign, thumb-and-index circle, tapping the temple, tapping the nose, the chin rub, signs/shields, danger signs, emergency exit, flags, different nations, racing, start, end, light, artificial, light bulbs, Is someone home?, traffic lights, red colour signifying "stop", yellow colour signifying "get ready", green colour signifying "go", natural, sun


touch, linguistic usage, deaf-blind communication, secret codes, non-linguistic usage, proxemics, physical distance, physical contact, kiss on the cheek, hug, shake s.b.'s hand


smell, communicative usage, more important in animal kingdom, mark one's territory, in human society, mainly sexual role, perfume gives information about someone's personality, male scent, female scent, age, character traits, bad smell, non-linguistic usage, reception of information about the outside world, smelling food, smelling danger (smoke/fire), sea air


taste, non-linguistic usage, reception of information about the outside world, tasting food, to distinguish between edible and inedible food, communicative usage more important in animal kingdom, dogs use it to mark their territory