Acids and Alkalis

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Acids and Alkalis by Mind Map: Acids and Alkalis

1. Universal Indicator

1.1. Acidic

1.1.1. pH 0 ~ 6

1.1.2. Lower the number the Stronger

1.2. Neutral

1.2.1. pH 7

1.3. Alkaline

1.3.1. pH 8 ~ 14

2. Acids

2.1. Properties of Acids

2.1.1. Corrosive

2.1.2. Taste sour

2.1.2.1. pH 8 ~ 14

2.1.3. Reacts with some metal to give off hydrogen gas

2.1.3.1. Dilute acid + metal = salt +hydrogen

2.1.4. Reacts with some carbonates to give off carbon dioxide gas

2.1.4.1. Dilute Acid + carbonate = water + carbon dioxide + salt

2.1.4.2. Turns blue litmus paper red

2.2. Uses of Acids

2.2.1. Hydrochloric acid

2.2.1.1. Remove rust

2.2.2. Sulfuric acid

2.2.2.1. Used in car batteries

2.2.3. Nitric Acid

2.2.3.1. For manufacturing of fertilizer

2.3. New Idea

3. Alkalis

3.1. Properties of alkalis

3.1.1. Taste bitter

3.1.2. Turns red litmus paper blue

3.1.3. Have soapy feeling

3.2. Uses of alkalis

3.2.1. Ammonia solution

3.2.1.1. Used to make fertilizer

3.2.2. Sodium Hydroxide ( Caustic soda )

3.2.2.1. For making soaps and detergents

3.2.3. Calcium hydroxide

3.2.3.1. Reduce of acidity in soil

4. Neutralization

4.1. Acid + Alkali = salt + water

5. Indicators

5.1. Colour chart indicator

5.1.1. Methyl orange in red

5.1.1.1. pH 0 ~ 3

5.1.2. Methyl Orange in yellow

5.1.2.1. pH 4 ~ 14

5.1.3. Phenolphthalein is colorless

5.1.3.1. pH 1 ~ 9

5.1.4. phenolphthalein is pink

5.1.4.1. pH 10 ~ 14

6. Salt , name of metal first then acid . Eg. Hydrochloric Acid + Magnesium = hydrogen + magnesium chloride (salt)