The Five Theories

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The Five Theories by Mind Map: The Five Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Constructivism

1.1.1. Characteristics

1.1.1.1. knowledge is actively constructed by students

1.1.1.2. involves personal discovery

1.1.1.3. new knowledge is built on existing knowledge

1.1.1.4. an adaptive process of learning that involves collection and using ideas

1.1.1.5. collaboration and sharing of ideas that allow students to find solutions through a shared understanding with others

1.1.1.6. authentic learning where learners are responsible and held accountable

1.1.1.7. actively engaged

1.1.1.8. students learn to problem solve, reflect to learn, make connections

1.1.1.9. constructs understanding of both knowledge and society

1.1.1.10. the role of teaching and learning is different

1.1.1.11. cognitive construction is developed through social construction

1.1.1.12. knowledge is actively received rather than passively received

1.1.2. Constructive psychologists

1.1.2.1. Piaget

1.1.2.1.1. interaction with environment

1.1.2.1.2. knowledge is mentally constructed by learner

1.1.2.2. Vygotsky

1.1.2.2.1. culture influences cognitive development

1.1.2.2.2. knowledge is created through social activites

1.1.3. Implications

1.1.3.1. rejects traditional teaching role

1.1.3.2. rejects traditional teaching methods

1.1.3.3. develops creative and critival thinking

1.1.3.4. develops knowledge of individual's social basis

1.1.3.5. classroom discussion allows learners to gain the skills and understanding of concepts through constructing

1.1.3.6. directs students to discussion

1.1.3.7. strong social interaction between teachers and students

1.2. Behaviorism

1.2.1. Characteristics

1.2.1.1. learning is connected by stimulus and response theory

1.2.1.2. focus on cause and observation

1.2.1.3. students learn through stimulation and responses

1.2.1.4. no transfer of knowledge to other areas

1.2.1.5. drill and practice

1.2.2. Behaviorists

1.2.2.1. Thorndike

1.2.2.1.1. developed the theory of stimulus and response

1.2.2.2. Skinner

1.2.2.2.1. reward and reinforcement

1.2.2.2.2. stimulus response theory

1.2.2.2.3. positive and negative reinforcement

1.2.2.3. Gane

1.2.2.3.1. cognitive process of learning

1.2.3. critisim

1.2.3.1. unexplained mind learning activities

1.2.3.2. mind processing is not important

1.2.3.3. not all learning can be achieved through behaviorism

1.3. Connectivism

1.3.1. Characteristics

1.3.1.1. emotions and cognition

1.3.1.2. critical thinking and emotions influence learning and are strongly connected

1.3.1.3. connection of nodes and information sources

1.3.1.4. maintaining connections develops and facilitates learning

1.3.1.5. knowing how to find information is more important that knowing information

1.3.1.6. up to date, accurate knowledge and information is important to learning

1.3.1.7. includes decision making

1.3.1.8. the ability to do something or an end goal in learning is important

1.3.1.9. learning comes from diversity of ideas and opinions

1.3.1.10. the role of the teacher is different

1.3.1.11. teachers are facilitators of the students learning

1.3.1.12. guide students and teach them how to network, retrieve information professionally

1.3.1.13. students learn to connect with others and make new contacts

1.3.1.14. students learn through technology, blogs, twitter, google scholar and by managing information

1.4. Cognitism

1.4.1. Examples of Cognitive tools

1.4.1.1. concept map

1.4.1.2. web development

1.4.1.3. Powerpoint presentation

1.4.1.4. Spread sheet

1.4.1.5. Data base (google)

1.4.1.6. Interactive learning tools

1.4.2. Characteristics

1.4.2.1. the mind is seen as an information processor

1.4.2.2. constructed mentally in the mind

1.4.2.3. mental process of learning, thinking, percieving

1.4.2.4. cognitive strategies and tools transfer into knowledge

1.4.2.5. thinking is a mind manipulation

1.4.2.6. Short term, long term and working meory

1.4.3. 3 main psychologists

1.4.3.1. Vygotsky

1.4.3.1.1. development takes place in social environment

1.4.3.1.2. cooperative arrangement fosters learning

1.4.3.1.3. focused on student self-learning

1.4.3.1.4. interactions and relationships influences thought and development

1.4.3.2. Piaget

1.4.3.2.1. theory of cognitive development

1.4.3.3. J.S Buner

1.4.3.3.1. the idea of transferring knowledge

1.4.3.3.2. generalizing knowledge and applying it to situations

1.4.3.3.3. understanding knowledge through structures

1.4.3.3.4. knowledge that is placed in structures all students to attain this knowledge better

1.4.4. Implacations

1.4.4.1. same ideas are presented at higher levels

1.4.4.2. discovery learning where knowledge is presented in models

1.5. Cognitive Load Theory

1.5.1. Main principles

1.5.1.1. Different structures in the mind

1.5.1.1.1. Working memory

1.5.1.1.2. Long term memory

1.5.1.2. Current knowledge limits working memory

1.5.1.2.1. Cognitive Overload

1.5.1.2.2. Ways to reduce cognitive overload

1.6. Instructional Design of Learning Theories

1.6.1. Instructional design models

1.6.1.1. ADDIE

1.6.1.1.1. Analyze phase

1.6.1.1.2. Design Phase

1.6.1.1.3. Develop Phase

1.6.1.1.4. Implement Phase

1.6.1.2. Dick and Carrie System

1.6.1.2.1. Learners and Instructors interact

1.6.1.3. Rapid Prototyping

1.6.1.3.1. process of verification

1.6.1.3.2. catch problems that are easy to fix

2. Technology Theories

2.1. Technology on learning

2.1.1. computer resources

2.1.2. tutorial systems

2.1.3. reusable learning objects

2.1.4. centred around the teacher and student learning

2.1.5. online collaboration that allows students to develop knowledge

2.1.6. problem solving

2.1.7. cognitive tools

2.1.8. interactive learning

2.1.9. engaging to students

2.1.10. instructional methods

2.2. Media Ecology

2.2.1. change of status and organization of knowledge

2.2.2. the study of media as an environment

2.2.3. structures what students see, say and do

2.2.4. Media communication affects the learner's perception and understanding

2.3. SCOT

2.3.1. Social construction of technology

2.3.2. human action shapes technology

2.3.3. students seek to better understand the social world

2.4. Teachnology

2.4.1. personal view of technology's role within the classroom

2.4.1.1. it changes the way we think, live and how we see the world

2.4.2. pushes students to edge of their learning abilities

2.4.3. explore and learn through developing new skills and knowledge

2.4.3.1. diverse learning environment

2.4.3.2. limited lectures

2.4.3.3. teamwork and cooperation

2.4.3.4. routine and practice

2.4.3.5. students learn to be tech savvy

2.4.3.6. cultural awareness

2.4.4. gives students power, control and confidence to succeed

2.4.4.1. empowers students in a new way

2.4.5. provides them with critical literacy skills

2.4.5.1. retain, analyze and produce content

2.4.5.2. expand knowledge

2.4.5.3. creates a rigorous writing environment

2.4.5.4. this can be done through blogs, chat, email

2.4.6. students are capable of learning and scaffolding knowledge

2.4.7. Teacher role changes

2.4.7.1. facilitator

2.4.7.2. monitor

2.4.7.3. mediator

2.5. TPACK

2.5.1. Why is TPACK important?

2.5.1.1. TPACK is all in context

2.5.1.2. this includes teaching technology enhanced lessons

2.5.1.3. TPACK varies on students, how old they are and what they are capable of

2.5.1.4. Enhances digital footprint

2.5.1.5. knowledge teachers need to learn to teach today's students

2.5.1.6. builds teacher knowledge with teacher technology

2.5.1.7. TPACK supports good teaching

2.5.2. What is TPACK?

2.5.2.1. technological pedagogical and content knowledge

2.5.2.2. pedagogical knowledge (P)

2.5.2.2.1. planning

2.5.2.2.2. class rules

2.5.2.2.3. class routines

2.5.2.2.4. grouping students

2.5.2.2.5. teaching environment

2.5.2.3. technological knowledge (T)

2.5.2.3.1. successfully incorporating technology within the calssroom

2.5.2.3.2. tools to enhance learning

2.5.2.3.3. tutorials

2.5.2.3.4. equipment

2.5.2.3.5. no more than 5 technology tools at a time

2.5.2.3.6. plan

2.5.2.3.7. pacing

2.5.2.4. content knowledge (C)

2.5.2.4.1. facts

2.5.2.4.2. concepts

2.5.2.4.3. analogies

2.5.2.4.4. frameworks

2.5.2.4.5. theories

2.5.2.4.6. models

2.5.2.4.7. procedures

2.5.2.4.8. course content knowledge

2.5.2.5. these three elements create different subdivisions of PC, TP, TC knowledge