Three Learning Theories

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Three Learning Theories by Mind Map: Three Learning Theories

1. Behaviorist/empiricist

1.1. New behaviors or change in behavior are acquired through association between stimuli and response

1.1.1. Motivation favors formation of new association and skills for learner for responding appropriately.

1.2. Three traditions that contributed this view

1.2.1. Associationism

1.2.2. Behaviorism

1.2.3. connectionism

1.3. key theorists: B. F. Skinner /Ivan Pavlov/Edward Thorndike/John watson/Locke/

1.3.1. The nature of knowing Knowing as having associations :knowing as having an organized collection of connections among elementary mental or behavioral units. Parallel-Distributed Connectionism: a terms of patterns of activation of units that excite or inhibit each other. Stimulus -Response Association Theory: behavior is to be understood as the responses of an organism to stimuli in the situation, and stimulus-response associations are strengthened and weakened in the events of an organism's activity and experience.

1.3.2. The nature of learning and transfer Acquiring and Applying Associations Learning : Learning is when people's knowledge is viewed as their having associations between ideas or stimuli and responses, learning is the formation, strengthening, and adjustment of those associations. Transfer : Learning in a new situation depends on how many, and which kinds of associations needed in the new situation have already been acquired in the previous situation.

1.3.3. The nature of motivation and engagement Extrinsic Motivation: Learning involves forming associations, engagement is assumed to occur mainly because of extrinsic motivations rewards, punishments, and positive or negative incentives that affect the individual's tendency to respond in the way that is needed for learning to occur. Skinner (1953) believed that negative reinforcements are often harmful to learning, because they suppress responding and can discourage people from participating lest they be punished.(Greeno, J. G,p.25)

1.4. Issues of practial Conceptulization

1.4.1. Implications for teaching 1-Routines of activity effective transmission of knowledge.2-Clear goals, feedback, and reinforcement 3-individualization with technologies.

1.4.2. Implications for assessment Assessment of knowledge components

1.4.3. Implications for learning Sequences of component to composite skills

1.4.4. Examples of teaching strategies/ methods: 1-Testing students' achievement.2-Reward system(reinforcement)3- homework - 4-practice and feedback

2. cognitive/rationalist

2.1. Learning occurs through internal processing of information.

2.1.1. Motivation often emphasize that learning occurs without the need for extrinsic incentives.

2.2. Three traditions branches of the cognitive perspective

2.2.1. Gestalt psychology

2.2.2. Constructivism

2.2.3. symbolic information processing

2.3. Key Theorists: Jean Piaget/Vygotsky/Bandura/Bruner/Descartes

2.3.1. The nature of knowing Knowing as Concepts and Cognitive Abilities: it treats knowing as having structures of information and processes that recognize and construct patterns of symbols in order to understand concepts and to exhibit general abilities. Conceptual Growth and the growth of reasoning Genersl Schema for Understanding and Reasoning Conceptual Understanding Reading and Writing Problem Solving and Reasoning Metacognitive Processes Students Epistemological Beliefs

2.3.2. The nature of learning and transfer Acquiring and Using Conceptual and Cognitive Structures Conceptual Learning :understanding is gained by an active process of construction rather than by passive assimilation of information or rote memorization (Confrey, 1990) Learning Problem -Solving and Representations: Representations and Procedures Symbolic information-processing models of solving text problems characterize knowledge for solving problems in terms of procedures that represent problem information, set goals, and transform symbolic expressions to satisfy the main problem goal. transfer is assumed to depend on acquiring an abstract mental representation in the form ofa schema that designates relations that compose a structure that is invariant across situations

2.3.3. The nature of motivation and engagement Intrinsic Motivation: learning is viewed as the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of information, concepts, principles, and strategies, engagement is often considered to be a person's intrinsic interest in a domain of cognitive activity, such as music, athletics, or an academic subject. Malone (1981) has developed a framework for intrinsic motivation in terms of three elements: challenge, fantasy, and curiosity.(Greeno, J. G,p.25)

2.4. Issues of Practical Conceptualization

2.4.1. Implications for Teaching Interactive environments for consrruction of understanding

2.4.2. Implications for Assessment 1-Assessments of extended performance.2-Crediting varieties of excellence.

2.4.3. Implications for Learning 1-Sequences of conceptual development: accomplishing conceptual growth by refining and extending their initial understanding.2-Explicit attention to generality

2.4.4. Examples of teaching strategies/ methods: 1- problem Solving method.2-Discussion 3-visualizing.

3. Situative/pragmatist_sociohistorical

3.1. people learn through social interactions and participating in communities of practice.

3.1.1. Motivation emphasize engagement of individuals with the functions and goals of the community

3.2. Three research traditions contributed to the situative perspective

3.2.1. Etbnography

3.2.2. Ecological psychology

3.2.3. Stuation theory

3.3. KeyTheorists:Dewey/Mead

3.3.1. The nature of knowing Knowing as Distributed in the world : it focuses on the way knowledge is distributed in the world among individuals, the tools, artifacts, and books that they use, and the communities and practices in which they participate , also it involves attunements to constraints and affordances of activity system , suggests a fundamental change in the way that instructional tasks are analyzed. Abilities to Interact with Physical Environments: Ecological psychology also redefines the nature of knowing, but the analysis focuses on relations between actions and the physical situation. Historically, a few psychologists have objected to the stimulus-response view of behavior, arguing that a more general, interactionist view of the relation between action and situations is appropriate

3.3.2. The nature of transfer Becoming Attuned to Constraints and Affordances Through Participation: Learning is the strengthening of individuals practices and participatory abilities . Engaged Participation: it focuses on engagement that maintains the person's interpersonal relations and identity in communities in which the person participates, or involves satisfying interactions with environments in which the person participates or involves satisfying interactions with environments in which the individual has a Significant personal investment. Transfer becomes a problematic issue, and to analyze the problem we need to :1-constraints and affordances that support activity that is learned.2-constraints and affordances that support successful activity.3-the transformations that relate the learning and transfer situations.

3.3.3. The nature of motivation and engagment

3.4. Issues of Practical Consuptualization

3.4.1. Implications for Teaching 1-Environments of participation in social practices of inquiry and learning.2-Support for development of positive epistemic identities.

3.4.2. Implications for Learning 1-Development of disciplinary practices of discourse and representation.2-Practices of formulating and solving realistic problems.3-Design of assessment systems.

3.4.3. Implications for Assesment 1-Assessing participation in inquiry and social practices of learning.2-Student participation in assessment.3-Design of assessment systems.

3.4.4. Examples of teaching strategies/ methods: formulating and evaluating questions, problems, conjectures, arguments, explanations.