THEORIES

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THEORIES by Mind Map: THEORIES

1. LEARNING THEORIES

1.1. CONNECTIVISM

1.1.1. Goal of learning: Increased ability to do something

1.1.2. Capacity to know more is more important that what you currently know

1.1.3. Knowing where to find information is more important than knowing information

1.1.4. "I store my knowledge in my friends"; Because we can't do everything ourselves, we are dependent on others' knowledge of their experiences

1.1.5. Only theory concerned with organizational knowledge and transference

1.1.6. Theory on learning but also has implications for management and leadership, media and news, personal processing, and the design of learning environments

1.2. CONSTRUCTIVISM

1.2.1. Learning is constructed and we build new knowledge on the foundations of previous knowledge

1.2.2. Students learn how to learn

1.2.3. Huge focus on problem solving and inquiry based learning

1.2.4. Theories of accommodation and assimilation of new knowledge related to schemas

1.2.5. Although teachers still play a vital role in scaffolding (and must work within the zone of proximal development of students), learning is the responsibility of the student

1.2.6. Deep understanding is achieved through dialogues, making connections, collaborating, building on prior understandings, and using multiple intelligences

1.2.7. Technology is one way we can give control back to student, rather than the more traditional, teacher directed classroom

1.3. COGNITIVE LOAD

1.3.1. Information processing theory used to explain the limits of the working memory based on working memory, longterm memory, and schemas

1.3.1.1. Working memory: phonetic and visual;

1.3.1.1.1. The magic number 7 (plus or minus 2): the number of smaller items (such as digits) that the working memory can store for 30 seconds to 2 minutes

1.3.1.1.2. Overload when memory has to process too much too fast

1.3.1.2. Long term memory: virtually unlimited

1.3.1.2.1. Schemas are created here via the working memory

1.3.2. Types of cognitive load

1.3.2.1. 1/ Extraneous: Forces working memory away from building schemas

1.3.2.2. 2/ Intrinsic: Irreducible complexity of elements interacting

1.3.2.3. 3/ Germane: Effortful learning resulting in schema construction

1.3.3. Has many implications related to memory retrieval such as chunking, repitition, and information landscaping

2. TECHNOLOGY THEORIES

2.1. SCOT

2.1.1. Belief that human action shapes technology but not vice versa

2.1.2. It can only be understood through the social context in which it exists

2.1.3. It is not only a theory but also a methodology: it lists formal steps on how to analyze the causes of technological success or failure

2.1.3.1. Stage 1: SCOT reconstructs interpretations, analyzes the problems and conflicts and connects them to the design features of the technological artifact

2.1.3.1.1. Principle of symmetry: The arguments (social, biological, cultural, political, etc.) for success or failure must be treated equally and without bias

2.1.3.1.2. Interpretive flexibility: Each technological artifact has different meanings and interpretations for various groups

2.1.3.1.3. Conflicts: Different interpretations can cause conflicts between criteria or between relevant groups

2.1.3.2. Stage 2: SCOT shows how closure is achieved

2.1.3.2.1. Two types of closure, both of which are not permanent

2.1.3.3. Stage 3: Relating the content of the technological artifact to the wider sociopolitical milieu

2.1.4. Criticisms

2.1.4.1. 1/ It explains how technologies arise but ignores the social consequences (what's supposed to be Step 3)

2.1.4.2. 2/ It is superficial; it ignores deeper concerns

2.1.4.3. 3/ It actively ignores taking a social stance and is therefore useless in debates concerning technology in society

2.1.4.4. 4/ The voices of the contributors are heard but not of those who aren't involved but are still directly affected

2.2. MEDIA ECOLOGY

2.2.1. The study of media environments: technology and techniques, modes of information, and codes of communication all play a role in learning

2.2.2. It is the history and philosophy of technology

2.2.3. How media of communication affects human perceptions, understanding, feelings, and values and how our interaction with media facilitates or impedes our chances of survival

2.2.4. Some are noting it as a paradigm shift (from civilization to post civilization) while others are calling it a preparadigmatic science

2.2.5. All explanations explain that it will mean a movement towards increasing integration of the physical and social sciences (such as mathematical biochemistry and psycholinguistics)

2.3. PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHNOLOGY

2.3.1. Definition: A teacher's personal philosophy about how they use technology as a teaching tool

2.3.2. Some of my own beliefs:

2.3.2.1. I believe students must be able to write effectively in multiple digital medias

2.3.2.2. Teaching is most effective when it is thoughtful, student-centered, and individualized. What better way than to allow students to express themselves through various digital and non digital media

2.3.2.3. The use of technology allows us to meet each student at their own current skill level. We can teach within their zone of proximal development

2.4. TPACK: TECHNOLOGY PEDAGOGY CONTENT KNOWLEDGE

2.4.1. Definition: understanding and describing the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a technologically enhanced learning environment

2.4.2. Criticized for presenting it as a neat package, a be all end all. But promoters of the theory say that TPACK must then be placed within a context. For example, this trio will look very different in elementary schools than it will in high schools

2.4.3. The key: understanding and negotiating the relationships between these three components