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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Constructivism

1.1.1. Knowledge is constructed through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.

1.1.2. Students come with their own ideas, knowledge. and understandings to build upon.

1.1.3. The teacher is a facilitator: coaching, moderating, giving suggestions, and allowing the student to experiment in order to learn.

1.1.4. Learning is constructed, active, reflective, collaborative, inquiry-based, and evolving.

1.2. Connectivism

1.2.1. Learning is a process of connecting to specialized nodes or information sources. Learners improve their learning by connecting to existing networks.

1.2.2. Knowing where to find information is more important than knowing information.

1.2.3. Learning is active as the learner is responsible for not only consuming knowledge, but for participating in a creation process: linking to and nurturing resources.

1.2.4. The teacher teaches students how to build networks: setting up and maintaining communication, providing guidance, showing how to evaluate credibility of sources, showing how to best use search engines, and organizing information.

1.3. Cognitive Load

1.3.1. Two types of memory.

1.3.1.1. Working Memory: Thinking and Awareness.

1.3.1.2. Long-Term Memory: Stored factual and procedural knowledge.

1.3.2. Working memory has the ability to receive information and store it in long-term memory. Working memory may also access that stored information in long-term memory.

1.3.3. Overload occurs when Working Memory has to process too much too fast. This situation can potentially impair learning.

1.3.4. Teachers need to be wary of how much information they are presenting to a student in order to prevent overload. Three strategies include...

1.3.4.1. Knowledge Compression (Chunking): Presenting information in meaningful chunks or schemas.

1.3.4.2. Repetition: Procedures isolated and rehearsed multiple times for working memory to process and develop.

1.3.4.3. Unclogging Cognitive Traffic Jams - "Information Landscapes": Presenting information through clear and elegant design principles.

2. Technology Theories

2.1. Media Ecology

2.1.1. The study of media as environments.

2.1.2. Connected to the ideas of Marshall McLuhan: "The Medium is the Message"

2.1.2.1. Technology affects our perception of the world. It is not the content that matters but how that content is spread. (ex: The light bulb allows access to information. Without the light bulb, certain information could not be accessed.

2.1.2.2. Technology influences society. (ex: The influence of the radio across Canada.)

2.1.3. Counter to SCOT.

2.2. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)

2.2.1. Advocating that human action shapes technology.

2.2.2. Acceptance or rejection of a technology is socially determined, regardless of how good the technology is.

2.2.3. Designs or modifications of technology are determined by the attempt to meet the needs and problems of social groups.

2.2.4. Used to analyze the success or failure of a technology.

2.2.5. Example: Dreamcast vs. Playstation

3. TPACK

3.1. The interplay and intersection where CK (Content Knowledge), PK (Pedagogical Knowledge), and TK (Technology Knowledge meet. A teacher should be able to integrate these 3 components to effectively teach their students.

3.1.1. Content Knowledge

3.1.1.1. Knowledge about the subject matter that is to be learned or taught.

3.1.1.2. Teachers should have knowledge on the subjects they wish to teach: frameworks, theories, facts, procedures, rules of evidence etc.

3.1.1.3. Teachers should be able to distinguish the difference of approach between different subjects (ex: Math vs. History assignments).

3.1.2. Pedagogical Knowledge

3.1.2.1. Knowledge about the processes, theories (cognitive, developmental, social), and practices/methods of teaching, and how those encompasses educational purposes, values, and aims.

3.1.2.2. Involves and understanding of the issues in student learning: how a student acquires knowledge and skills, student participation, lesson plans, student evaluation etc.

3.1.3. Technology Knowledge

3.1.3.1. Standard technology - Knowledge about how to use tools such as books or a chalkboard.

3.1.3.2. Advanced technology - Knowledge about how to effectively use the internet, software, and hardware. Examples include Microsoft Office or digital video.

4. Philosophy of Teachnology

4.1. A teacher's personal philosophy about how to use technology as a teaching tool -- integrating technology into a personal Philosophy of Teaching (statements revealing personal values and beliefs about teaching).