Primer Trimestre

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Primer Trimestre by Mind Map: Primer Trimestre


1.1. The commonwhealt of nations is an organization made up of 54 independent and semi-independent sovereign countries that its purpouse is international cooperation and to advance economics, social development, and human rights in member countries.

1.1.1. Botswana Cameroon Gambia, The Ghana Kenya Kingdom of Eswatini Lesotho Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Seychelles Sierra Leone South Africa Uganda United Republic of Tanzania Zambia Bangladesh Brunei Darussalam India Malaysia Maldives Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas, The Barbados Belize Canada Dominica Grenada Guyana Jamaica Saint Lucia St Kitts and Nevis St Vincent and The Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago Cyprus Malta United Kingdom Australia Fiji Kiribati Nauru New Zealand Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu America: Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Dominica Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago

2. Segundo Trimestre

2.1. Economic development and demography: more developed and underdeveloped countries and their demographic indicators.

2.1.1. More developed: United States, China and more

2.1.2. Undeveloped countries: Niger, Central African Republic and more

2.1.3. Demographic indicators: Measure the population size, sex ratio, density and dependency ratio

2.2. Natural resources: what are they, classification. Water resources: their distribution according to the distribution of rainfall, the influence of marine currents and prevailing winds.

2.2.1. The Natural resources are the goods and services provided by nature without the human intervation Examples: Goods: Water, wood, oxygen etc. Services: Realese oxygen by plants, photosynthesis, respiration etc Classification: There are two types of natural resources the renewable resources and the nonrenewable Renewable natural resource: The renewable resource are the resources that once used you can use again like solar energy, wind energy etc Nonrenewable natural resource: The nonrenewable naturar resource are the resources that once used you cant use again like water, wood etc

2.2.2. Water resources Water rainfall distribution: The distribution in America North America: The most of the region is on a level between 250 and 500 but in the west most of the land that is touching the sea has a level higher than 3000. In the north the level is 250. Central America: All the region is over 500 and in the east the levels are 1000 or 2000. South America: In some parts of the south the levels is of 250 and in all the region there are almost nothing above 3000 and in the most of the region is between 1000 to 2000. The influence of marine currents and prevailing winds Prevailing winds: Prevailing winds are important for determining locations of wind farms in order to generate electricity. Prevailing winds also determine the amount of rainfall that different regions get. Marine currents: Ocean currents act as conveyer belts of warm and cold water, sending heat toward the polar regions and helping tropical areas cool off, thus influencing both weather and climate.

2.3. The most important rivers in America: their characteristics, their regime, main uses, pollution problems.

2.3.1. Yukon River Caracteristics: It is 3,185 km long and forms a large basin of 854,000 km². Regime:The Yukon river, in Alaska, experiences low discharge from december to may due to frozen conditions. From may to june, there is a dramatic increase in discharge due to melting snow and ice. The temperature will also impact rates of evaporation, which influences how much water makes it to the river. Geology and overly soils. This impacts whether water infiltrates and perculates into rocks, being stored as groundwater and increasing the time it takes for water to reach the river.​ Main uses: The Yukon River is still tightly woven into the social and economic fabric of the approximately 30,000 people who live in the watershed. The salmon fishery is an important industry in the region, and many who inhabit the region rely on salmon and other species for subsistence.​ Pollution problems: Even at its headwaters, the Yukon is contaminated with creosote and PCBs from manufacturing.

3. Relative and absolute location of the American continent.

3.1. What is relative and absolute location

3.1.1. A relative location is the position of something relative to another landmark. For example, you might say you're 50 miles west of Houston. An absolute location describes a fixed position that never changes, regardless of your current location. It is identified by specific coordinates, such as latitude and longitude

3.1.2. Relative location: America is located in the western hemisphere; it is the only continent on the planet that extends from pole to pole. It is surrounded by oceans: to the East, the Atlantic Ocean separates it from Europe and Africa, and to the West, the Pacific Ocean separates it from Asia and Oceania.

3.2. North America Latitude & Longitude Map The North America continent lies between latitude 48.1667° N and longitude 100.1667° W.

4. How many Americas are there?

4.1. There are 3 Americas becouse of its large size and geographic characteristics, the American continent is divided in North America Central America and South America

5. Geological and cultural criteria to identify the regions of America

5.1. A region can be defined by natural or artificial features. Language, government, or religion can define a region, as can forests, wildlife, or climate. Regions, large or small, are the basic units of geography.

5.1.1. The fundamental difference between Latin America and Anglo-Saxon America is that the former is made up of underdeveloped countries, while the other is made up of developed countries. Most of the existing languages ​​were derived from Latin, mainly Spanish or Portuguese

6. Origin of the name America

6.1. The origin of the name of America comes from Americo Vespucio who was the first person to reveal to the Old World that the land found by Colon was a continental mass and not the East Indies

7. Countries and capitals

7.1. There are 197 Countries in the world and all of them have capitals. In America there are 35 countries.

7.1.1. 1. Antigua y Barbuda: Saint John’s. 2. Argentina: Buenos Aires. 3. Bahamas: Nasáu. 4. Barbados: Bridgetown. 5. Belice: Belmopán. 6. Bolivia: Sucre. 7. Brasil: Brasilia. 8. Canadá: Ottawa. (Mapa de Canadá). 9. Chile: Santiago. 10. Colombia: Bogotá. 11. Costa Rica: San José. 12. Cuba: La Habana. 13. Dominica: Roseau. 14. Ecuador: Quito. 15. El Salvador: San Salvador. 16. Estado Unidos: Washington D. C. 17. Granada: Saint George. 18. Guatemala: Ciudad de Guatemala. 19. Guyana: Georgetown. 20. Haití: Puerto Príncipe. 21. Honduras: Tegucigalpa. 22. Jamaica: Kingston. 23. México: Ciudad de México. (Lista de los 32 estados de México) 24. Nicaragua: Managua. 25. Panamá: Ciudad de Panamá. 26. Paraguay: Asunción. 27. Perú: Lima. 28. República Dominicana: Santo Domingo. 29. San Cristóbal y Nieves: Basseterre. 30. San Vicente y las Granadinas: Kingstown. 31. Santa Lucia: Castries. 32. Surinam: Paramaribo. 33. Trinidad y Tobago: Puerto España. 34. Uruguay: Montevideo. 35. Venezuela: Caracas.

8. Dependent and independent countries

8.1. The difference between dependant and independent countries is that the dependant countries doesnt have total politic independence meanwhile the independant countris have the total politic independence

9. The commonwealth of nations

10. Case study: Puerto Rico and its dependence on the United States.

10.1. Puerto Rico is a dependant contry, its a very scpecial case. Its an unincorporated territory of the commonwealth of the United States, it´s between being a State and a dependant country. Puerto Rico´s population is called Taino, they first called the land Boriquen. In 1943 Columbus claimed the island for Spain. In 1521 the island was nemed Puerto Rico. The capital became San Juan. In 1898 the US was victorius in the battle and Puerto Rico became US territory, and it continued its plantation economy. Puerto Rico had a lot of political changes. Puerto Rico became formaly a Commonwealth in 1948.

11. Demographic characteristics of America: birth rates, mortality, the demographic transition model.

11.1. The total America Birth Rates: 45 per 1000 people

11.2. United States Mortality: 8.3 per 1,000

11.3. Demographic transition model: The Demographic Transition Model is based on historical population trends of two demographic characteristics birth rate and death rate to suggest that a country's total population growth rate cycles through stages as that country develops economically.

12. Population pyramids. Population growth. GDP and levels of economic development

12.1. Population pyramids: The population pyramids is a graphic that it is made of horizontally arranged bars whose length is proportional to the number of people represented by the age and sex of the population in each of said bars, and this information is used to determine the percentage of the population.

12.2. Population growth: Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population. Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year.

12.3. GDP: GDP is a financial metric that breaks down a country's economic output per person and is calculated by dividing the GDP of a nation by its population.

12.3.1. Per capita

12.4. Levels of economic development: The Stages of economic growth model is one of the main historical models of economic growth with 5 stages that are (1) The Traditional Society: (2) The Pre-conditions to Take-off: (3) The “Take off” Period: (4) Drive to Maturity: (5) The Age of High Mass Consumption: