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11: Upper Limb: Shoulder and Arm Muscles (IC) by Mind Map: 11: Upper Limb: Shoulder and Arm
Muscles (IC)
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11: Upper Limb: Shoulder and Arm Muscles (IC)


Arm muscles

Anterior compartment (flexors)

Biceps brachii



Posterior compartment (extensors)

Triceps brachii


Scapulohumeral muscles


Origine, Anterior Fibers : Lateral Third of the Anterior Border of the Clavicle, Middle Fibers: Lateral Border of the Acromion, Posterior Fibers: Lower Border of the Spine of the Scapula

Insertion, Deltoid Tuberosity of Humerus

Nerve supply, Axillary Nerve

Action, Anterior Fibers – Flexion & Medial Rotation of Arm, Middle Fibres: Abduction of Arm up to 90°, Posterior Fibres – Assist in Extension & Act in Lateral Rotation of Arm

Intramuscular injections

Teres major

Origine, Posterior Surface of Inferior Angle of Scapula

Insertion, Medial Lip on Intertubercular Groove of Humerus

Nerve supply, Lower Subscapular Nerve

Action, Adducts, Medially Rotates, Help in Extending Flexed Arm


Origine, Coracoid process of scapula

Insertion, middle of medial surface of shaft of the humerus

Nerve supply, Musculocutaneous nerve

action, flexion, adduction

Rotator cuff muscles

Subscapularis, Origine, Subscapular Fossa, Insertion, Lesser Tubercle of Humerus, Nerve supply, Upper & Lower Subscapular Nerves, action, Medial rotation, adduction, Helps to Hold Humeral Head in Glenoid Cavity

Supraspinatus, Origine, Supraspinous Fossa of Scapula, Insertion, Superior Facet on Greater Tubercle of Humerus, Nerve supply, Suprascapular Nerve, Action, Initiates (15°) & Assists Deltoid in Abduction of Arm, Stabilize the Shoulder by Maintaining Head in Cavity

Infraspinatus, Origine, Infraspinous Fossa of Scapula, Insertion, Middle Facet on Greater Tubercle of Humerus, Nerve supply, Suprascapular Nerve, Action, Laterally Rotates the Arm, Help to Hold Humeral Head in Glenoid Cavity of Scapula

Teres minor, Origine, Lateral Border of Scapula, Insertion, Inferior Facet on Greater Tubercle of Humerus, Nerve supply, Axillary Nerve, Action, Laterally Rotates the Arm, Adducts the Arm (weak), Help to Hold Humeral Head in Glenoid Cavity of Scapula

Posterior axioappendicular muscles


Levator scapulae

Rhomboids, Major (wider), Minor (thicker)


Trapezius, Origins, Occipital bone, Ligamentum nuchae, C7 to T12, Insertion, Superior fibres (occipital and upper cervical), posterior border of the Lateral Third of Clavicle, Middle fibres (lower cervical and upper thorcaic), Acromion & Spine of the Scapula, Inferior fibres, Spine of the Scapula, Nerve supply, Motor, Spinal part of the Accessory Nerve, Sensory, C3,4, Action, all fibers, retraction of scapula, superor fibers, lateral flexion & extension of the neck, elevation of scapula, middle fibers, pull the scapula medially, inferior fibers, Pull the Medial Border of the Scapula Downward so that the Glenoid Cavity Faces Upward & Forward

Latissimus dorsi, Origins, Insertion

Anterior axioappendicular muscles

Pectoralis major

Location, Anterior wall of the axilla, Forms the anterior axillary fold, Covered by tough fascia

2 origins, sternocostal head, Sternum, Upper 6 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle of the abdomen, Clavicular head, Medial Half of the Clavicle

Insertion, Lateral lip of the biciptal groove (intertubercular sulcus) of the humerus

Action, as a whole, Medial rotation, Adduction, Accessory inspiratory muscle, clavicular head, assist in flexion, sternocostal head, extends the flexed arm to the side of the trunk

Innervation, medial and lateral pectoral nerves, Clavicular head (C5,6), Sternocostal (C6,7,8,and T1)

Pectoralis minor

location, anterior wall of the axilla

Origins, 3rd-5th ribs

Insertion, Carocoid process of scapula

Nerve supply, Medial and lateral pectoral nerves

Action, Protraction (assist serratus anterior), Accessory inspiratory muscle (assists in forced inhalation), Important landmark to axillary artery and brachial plexus cords, Connected to clavicle by clavipectoral fascia, Stabilises the scapula, Depresses the Point of Shoulder to Rest Position after full abduction


Origine, First Costal Cartilage and Adjacent Bone

Insertion, Inferior surface of clavicle (subclavicle groove)

Nerve supply, Nerve to subclavius

Action, stabilising the clavicle, depresses the clavicle, prevents damage to subclavian vain when the clavicle is fractured, stabilising the clavicle

Serratus anterior

Medial wall of the axilla

Origin, Outer Lateral Surfaces of the Upper Eight Ribs

Insertion, Medial margin of the costal surface of Scapula

Nerve supply, Long Thoracic Nerve of Bell

Action, Protracts Scapula (draws it internally and forward), Rotates the scapula, lowers the arm from a raised position, Holds vertebral border of scapula Against Thoracic Wall in all positions, Accessory forced inspiratory muscle

u need to know

Location and orientation of muscle fibers

Muscle goups






Axial muscles that move the humerus