Adult Language Disorders & Cognitive Based Functions

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Adult Language Disorders & Cognitive Based Functions by Mind Map: Adult Language Disorders & Cognitive  Based Functions

1. Anomia-intended word is not produced, intention is expressed through many words were fewer would do.

2. Agraphia-writing disorder (aGRAPHia; graph is something you draw with a pencil which you write with)

3. Alexia-reading disorder (like dyslexia, alexia)

4. Non-fluent Aphasia (slow rate; TM.MT.G.B.)

4.1. Transcortical Motor

4.1.1. Apathy, unfinished sentences, a little or no spontaneous speech, good comprehension.

4.2. Mixed Transcortial

4.2.1. Rare, paralysis, auditory and reading comprehension severe, good repetition and automatic speech.

4.3. Global

4.3.1. SEVERE, greatly impaired language skills, poor repetition, naming and auditory comprehension.

4.3.2. BOTH comprehension and expression affected, limited communicative ability

4.3.3. Lesion location: perisylvian

4.4. Broca's

4.4.1. Imperfect conversations, agrammatic (inability speaking in a grammatically correct sequence), poor repetition and naming, good auditory comprehension.

4.4.2. Comprehension > Expression

4.4.3. Location of Broca's area: inferior frontal lobe convolution (In Fall Lovers Connect, I.F.L.C.)

4.4.4. Signs: short utterances, agrammatic, telegraphic speech

5. Paraphasia-word different than intended word)

5.1. Literal (phonemic)-phonemes out of order

5.1.1. INS to insert (Windows)

5.1.2. TAB to insert (Mac OS)

5.1.3. ENTER to add siblings

5.1.4. DEL to delete

5.1.5. Press F1 to see all key shortcuts

5.2. Verbal-real, but unintended word

5.2.1. Semantic Jargon- word salad

5.3. Neolistic-jibberish word substituted

5.3.1. Neolistic Jargon- utterance, mostly gibberish

5.3.1.1. Personal Todo List

5.3.1.2. Vacation Planning

5.3.1.3. Meeting Minutes

5.3.1.4. Project Plan

5.3.1.5. more...

6. Fluent Aphasia (normal-faster rate of speech; W.A.C.TS.)

6.1. Wernicke's

6.1.1. Flowing effortless speech, poor naming, turntaking, repetition and auditory comprehension, severe word finding.

6.1.2. Location of Lesion to cause W's: posterior lesion to superior temporal lobe (Penguins Like to Swim Till Lunch; P.L.to.S.T.L.)

6.1.3. Signs: limited understanding/comprehension, expression more fluid but empty

6.2. Anomic

6.2.1. Fluent conversational, general word finding difficulty, paraphasias and circulumtation, normal syntax, repetition, comprehension, articulation, reading, and writing.

6.2.2. Naming issues

6.2.3. Location of Lesion: temporoparietal

6.3. Conduction

6.3.1. Rare, empty phonemic paraphasic speech, impaired repetition and naming, good auditory comprehension.

6.3.2. poor rep. compared to speech and understanding

6.3.3. Location of Lesion: supramarginal gyrus

6.4. Transcortical Sensory

6.4.1. Paraphasic empty speech, severe naming, poor auditory comprehension, repetition intact, TEMPOROPARIETAL region.

7. Aphasia

7.1. loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage

7.2. Divides into: motor/expressive, sensory/receptive, fluent, non-fluent

8. Subcortical Aphasia

8.1. Much cortical damage, fluent speech with hesitations, problems with articulation and word finding, good repetition.

9. Auditory Verbal Agnosia-deafness

10. Paragramatism- rich construction of speech

11. = Poor repetition (Perisylvian Aphasias)

12. = Intact repetition (Transcortical Aphasias)

13. Confabulation-confused language

14. =more expressive type of aphasia

15. =more receptive type of aphasia

16. Transcortical Aphasia- ability to repeat better is better than ability to speak or understand; lesions located around Broca's or Wernike's

17. Dementia-impairment in short-term memory and long-term memory; Defining feature: rapid forgetting of recent events

17.1. Present when diagnosing: impairment in abstract thinking, impaired judgement, other disturbances of higher cortical function, personality change

17.2. Reversible: brain tumor, depression, hypothyroidism, drug interactions, nutrition deficits

17.3. Irreversible:Alzheimer's,pick's disease, lewy body disease, vascular dementia, huntington's chorea

17.4. Diagnose:patient history, physical exam, neurological evaluations, cognitive an neuropsychological test, brain scans, rating scales.

17.4.1. Diagnosis & Assessment Tests: mini mental state exam (MMSE), Arizona battery for communication disorders of dementia (ABCD), functional assessment of communication skills (asha facs)

17.4.2. Diagnosing Tools: Clock drawing test, story retell

17.4.3. Doctor diagnosis patient usually when 2 or more brain functions are significantly impaired

17.5. Stages and what happens during them

17.5.1. Early stage: normal grammer, less concise discourse, more fragments, forget topic, repitioua

17.5.2. Middle stage: less verbal output, more difficulty with lexical retrieval and idea generation (dysnomia, empty discourse), impaired comprehension due to rapid forgetting, retain reading skills

17.5.3. Late stage: severely reduced output of meaningful language, dysnomia, ideational perseveration, may be able to name and contribute to a conversation, often retain some social language, reading comprehension impaired

17.6. Affects 15% of older Americans; 60-80% of dementia patients have Alzheimer's

17.7. Cholinesterase inhibitors- drugs used to treat mild and moderate dementia

18. Alzheimer's-chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disease; suffered by 4.5 million Americans

18.1. onset of Alzheimer's is most often at the age of 65 or older; familial cases of AD are rare

18.2. Risk factors: atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, diabetes

18.3. Neurofibrillary tangles: abnormal collections of twisted protein threads inside nerve cells; happen at a much greater rate in AD than in normal aging brains

18.4. The 3 categories of AD: mild, moderate, late; The initial sign: deterioration in memory; progression of AD can range from 3 to 20 years

18.5. Nursing strategies to address difficult behaviors: redirection, distraction, reassurance