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Sexual Reproduction in humans by Mind Map: Sexual Reproduction in humans
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Sexual Reproduction in humans



Become muscular and shoulders broaden

Testis and penis increase in size

Height rapidly increases

Reproductive system becomes active

Ejaculation starts

Hair grows on face, chest, pubic areas


Ovaries and vagina increase in size

Menstruation occurs

Hair grows on face, pubic areas

Hips widen and become rounder

Height rapidly increases

Reproductive system becomes active

Breast develop


Causes physical, emotional, and social issues if pregnancy is unwanted

The deliberate termination of a pregnancy

Use surgical procedure to remove the developing embryo or foetus from the mother's uterus

Complications may arise

Infections of the uterus or Fallopian tube can cause infertility

Heavy bleeding due to accidental puncturing of the uterus

Weakening and damage of the cervix and uterus

Emotional problems of the mother

Perforation of other organs

Menstrual Cycle


Day 1-5 of the cycle

Uterine lining, unfertilised egg and blood are shed with the help of muscular contractions of the uteris

Contractions cause cramps

Thickening of uterine lining

To prepare for implantation, the lining thickens and becomes spongy, and full of capillaries


Day 14-16 of the cycle

A mature ovum is released from an ovary

Considered the most fertile period

Non-menstruating periods of a woman's life

Temporary, When a woman is pregnant, menstruation stops but thick uterine wall still stays to support and protect the developing foetus

Permanent, Menopause- Happens at around 50 years of age

Reproductive organs


Testis, Produces Sperms, Produces testosterone stimulating male secondary sexual characteristics and spermatogenesis

Scrotum, Keep the testis and the penis out of the body to provide optimal temperature for development of sperms

Epididymis, Where sperms produced by the testis are stored before ejaculation

Urethra, Tube which carriers both sperm and urine out of the body

Sex Glands, Releases fluid that nourishes and protects the sperms, and forms semen

Sperm Duct, Tube that carriers sperms from the epididymis to the urethra


Fallopian tube, Carries ovum to uterus, and has cilia to sweep ovum to the urerus

Vagina, Site where sperms are deposited during sexual intercourse

Ovary, Produces ova, Produce sex hormones like estrogen which causes development of secondary female sex characteristics and maturation of eggs, Also produces progesterone which stimulates development of uterine lining and formation of placenta

Cervix, Neck of the uterus which widens during child birth

Uterus, Structure whereby the fertilised ovum is implanted in, and also where ovum is developed into zygote and foetus during pregnancy

Production of sex hormones controlled by follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

Female, FSH stimulates ovum production by stimulating the development of the follicles in the ovaries and also forms granulosa cells which produce estrogen, High estrogen levels result in the negative feedback effect: GnRH in the hypothalamus is inhibited, FSH decreases, LH increases (a surge),ovulation occurs, LH causes egg to undergo meiosis I, a surge of LH triggers ovulation. Also turns the follicle into corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen, which stimulates development of uterine lining, High progesterone levels result in negative feedback effect: GnRH is inhibited, LH decreases, Corpus Luteum lasts for 14 days, after which no more hormones are produced, thus the uterine lining cannot be maintained and is thus discharged.

Male, LH stimulates the interstitial cells in the testes, increasing production of testosterone, High testosterone levels result in negative feedback effect: GnRH in the hypothalamus is inhibited, LH decreases, FSH stimulates the productivity of the sertoli cells in the testes and increases spermatogenesis, High FSH levels result in production of inhibin by sertoli cells, which sent negative feedback to the hypothalamus


Excitement phase- Penis gets erect after sexual stimulation by various means

Plateau phase- Increased heartbeat and breathing rate, increase muscle tension and increased sexual stimulation

Orgasmic Phase- Semen is ejaculated, following by the sperms swimming up the Fallopian tube. Involuntary muscle contractions present. Waves of pleasure form.

Sperm meets the ovum in the Fallopian tube and fertilisation occurs

After going past the corona radiata, acrosomal enzymes are released by the sperms to dissolve the zona pellucida.

A impermeable membrane forms around the egg once a sperm has entered it to prevent multiple fertilization

Nuclei of sperm and ovum fuse together

Fertilised egg is called the zygote

Passes along the Fallopian tube to the uterus

Cleavage occurs- Zygote divides repeatedly to form 8-cell zygote

Compactation occurs. The zygote is now 32-celled and consists of cells called blastomeres

Cavitation occurs, where a fluid-filled cavity forms in the blastocyst., Zona pellucida starts to degenerate

Blastula stage is reached after 4-6 days, lasts until implantation.

Embryo gets implanted in the thick uterine lining, undergoes differentiation to form a foetus

Trophoblast (outermost layer of cells) divide into two parts - syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast

Foetus gets nourishment from the mother through the placenta


The transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to offspring

Sperm which contains father's DNA

Ovum which contains mother's DNA

Zygote contains mixture of father and mother's DNA

Birth control

Preventing fertilisation

Condom, Worn over the erected penis, Barriers the eggs and sperms

Diaphragm, Placed over the cervix, Barriers the spemrs and eggs

Spermicide, Kills sperms

Preventing ovulation

Contraceptive pills, Contains synthetic female sex hormones, Suppresses the development and release of the eggs

Preventing the development of a fertilised egg

Intra-uterine device, Inserted into the uterus, which prevents implantation of the fertilised egg in the uterus


Ligation (Females), Tie and cut Fallopian tubes

Vasectomy (Males), Tie and cut the sperm duct

A person's ability to reproduce is permanently removed, and this process is irreversible

Sexually transmitted infections

Caused by viruses and micro-organisms

Transmitted by:

Skin to skin contact

Contact with bodily fluids (e.g. blood, semen, etc)

From infected mother to foetus

Different infections

Gonorhea, Caused by sperical bateria, Transmitted through, Sexual intercourse, Mother to baby through childbirth, Symptoms, Painful sensation during urination, Discharge of pus from the penis or vagina, Infection of urethra of Fallopian tubes causing infertility, Newborn may be blind, Can be treated with anti-biotics

Syphilis, Caused by spiral bacteria, Transmitted through, Sexual intercourse, Mother to foetus during pregnancy, Symptoms, Painless sores on penis,vagina,cervix,mouth, Non-itchy skin rash, Deformed joints, Paralysis, Foetus infected by mother may be deaf, or have abnormal teeth and bone, Can be treated with antibiotics at early stages

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Caused by Humans Immunodeficiency Virus, Transmitted through, Sexual intercourse, Sharing of injection needles with infected people, Blood transfusion, Infected mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth, Symptoms/effects, HIV attacks white blood cells, therefore the immune system of the person is reduced, Other infections and cancers will affect the person, Currently no cure

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