Sexual Reproduction in humans

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Sexual Reproduction in humans by Mind Map: Sexual Reproduction in humans

1. Puberty

1.1. Male

1.1.1. Become muscular and shoulders broaden

1.1.2. Testis and penis increase in size

1.1.3. Height rapidly increases

1.1.4. Reproductive system becomes active

1.1.5. Ejaculation starts

1.1.6. Hair grows on face, chest, pubic areas

1.2. Female

1.2.1. Ovaries and vagina increase in size

1.2.2. Menstruation occurs

1.2.3. Hair grows on face, pubic areas

1.2.4. Hips widen and become rounder

1.2.5. Height rapidly increases

1.2.6. Reproductive system becomes active

1.2.7. Breast develop

2. Abortion

2.1. Causes physical, emotional, and social issues if pregnancy is unwanted

2.2. The deliberate termination of a pregnancy

2.3. Use surgical procedure to remove the developing embryo or foetus from the mother's uterus

2.4. Complications may arise

2.4.1. Infections of the uterus or Fallopian tube can cause infertility

2.4.2. Heavy bleeding due to accidental puncturing of the uterus

2.4.3. Weakening and damage of the cervix and uterus

2.4.4. Emotional problems of the mother

2.4.5. Perforation of other organs

3. Menstrual Cycle

3.1. Menstruation

3.1.1. Day 1-5 of the cycle

3.1.2. Uterine lining, unfertilised egg and blood are shed with the help of muscular contractions of the uteris

3.1.3. Contractions cause cramps

3.2. Thickening of uterine lining

3.2.1. To prepare for implantation, the lining thickens and becomes spongy, and full of capillaries

3.3. Ovulation

3.3.1. Day 14-16 of the cycle

3.3.2. A mature ovum is released from an ovary

3.3.3. Considered the most fertile period

3.4. Non-menstruating periods of a woman's life

3.4.1. Temporary When a woman is pregnant, menstruation stops but thick uterine wall still stays to support and protect the developing foetus

3.4.2. Permanent Menopause- Happens at around 50 years of age

4. Reproductive organs

4.1. Male

4.1.1. Testis Produces Sperms Produces testosterone stimulating male secondary sexual characteristics and spermatogenesis

4.1.2. Scrotum Keep the testis and the penis out of the body to provide optimal temperature for development of sperms

4.1.3. Epididymis Where sperms produced by the testis are stored before ejaculation

4.1.4. Urethra Tube which carriers both sperm and urine out of the body

4.1.5. Sex Glands Releases fluid that nourishes and protects the sperms, and forms semen

4.1.6. Sperm Duct Tube that carriers sperms from the epididymis to the urethra

4.2. Female

4.2.1. Fallopian tube Carries ovum to uterus, and has cilia to sweep ovum to the urerus

4.2.2. Vagina Site where sperms are deposited during sexual intercourse

4.2.3. Ovary Produces ova Produce sex hormones like estrogen which causes development of secondary female sex characteristics and maturation of eggs Also produces progesterone which stimulates development of uterine lining and formation of placenta

4.2.4. Cervix Neck of the uterus which widens during child birth

4.2.5. Uterus Structure whereby the fertilised ovum is implanted in, and also where ovum is developed into zygote and foetus during pregnancy

4.3. Production of sex hormones controlled by follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

4.3.1. Female FSH stimulates ovum production by stimulating the development of the follicles in the ovaries and also forms granulosa cells which produce estrogen High estrogen levels result in the negative feedback effect: GnRH in the hypothalamus is inhibited, FSH decreases, LH increases (a surge),ovulation occurs LH causes egg to undergo meiosis I, a surge of LH triggers ovulation. Also turns the follicle into corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen, which stimulates development of uterine lining High progesterone levels result in negative feedback effect: GnRH is inhibited, LH decreases Corpus Luteum lasts for 14 days, after which no more hormones are produced, thus the uterine lining cannot be maintained and is thus discharged.

4.3.2. Male LH stimulates the interstitial cells in the testes, increasing production of testosterone High testosterone levels result in negative feedback effect: GnRH in the hypothalamus is inhibited, LH decreases FSH stimulates the productivity of the sertoli cells in the testes and increases spermatogenesis High FSH levels result in production of inhibin by sertoli cells, which sent negative feedback to the hypothalamus

5. Fertilisation

5.1. Excitement phase- Penis gets erect after sexual stimulation by various means

5.2. Plateau phase- Increased heartbeat and breathing rate, increase muscle tension and increased sexual stimulation

5.3. Orgasmic Phase- Semen is ejaculated, following by the sperms swimming up the Fallopian tube. Involuntary muscle contractions present. Waves of pleasure form.

5.4. Sperm meets the ovum in the Fallopian tube and fertilisation occurs

5.4.1. After going past the corona radiata, acrosomal enzymes are released by the sperms to dissolve the zona pellucida.

5.4.2. A impermeable membrane forms around the egg once a sperm has entered it to prevent multiple fertilization

5.4.3. Nuclei of sperm and ovum fuse together

5.4.4. Fertilised egg is called the zygote

5.4.5. Passes along the Fallopian tube to the uterus

5.4.6. Cleavage occurs- Zygote divides repeatedly to form 8-cell zygote

5.4.7. Compactation occurs. The zygote is now 32-celled and consists of cells called blastomeres

5.4.8. Cavitation occurs, where a fluid-filled cavity forms in the blastocyst. Zona pellucida starts to degenerate

5.4.9. Blastula stage is reached after 4-6 days, lasts until implantation.

5.4.10. Embryo gets implanted in the thick uterine lining, undergoes differentiation to form a foetus

5.4.11. Trophoblast (outermost layer of cells) divide into two parts - syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast

5.4.12. Foetus gets nourishment from the mother through the placenta

6. Heredity

6.1. The transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to offspring

6.1.1. Sperm which contains father's DNA

6.1.2. Ovum which contains mother's DNA

6.1.3. Zygote contains mixture of father and mother's DNA

7. Birth control

7.1. Preventing fertilisation

7.1.1. Condom Worn over the erected penis Barriers the eggs and sperms

7.1.2. Diaphragm Placed over the cervix Barriers the spemrs and eggs

7.1.3. Spermicide Kills sperms

7.2. Preventing ovulation

7.2.1. Contraceptive pills Contains synthetic female sex hormones Suppresses the development and release of the eggs

7.3. Preventing the development of a fertilised egg

7.3.1. Intra-uterine device Inserted into the uterus, which prevents implantation of the fertilised egg in the uterus

7.4. Sterilisation

7.4.1. Ligation (Females) Tie and cut Fallopian tubes

7.4.2. Vasectomy (Males) Tie and cut the sperm duct

7.4.3. A person's ability to reproduce is permanently removed, and this process is irreversible

8. Sexually transmitted infections

8.1. Caused by viruses and micro-organisms

8.2. Transmitted by:

8.2.1. Skin to skin contact

8.2.2. Contact with bodily fluids (e.g. blood, semen, etc)

8.2.3. From infected mother to foetus

8.3. Different infections

8.3.1. Gonorhea Caused by sperical bateria Transmitted through Sexual intercourse Mother to baby through childbirth Symptoms Painful sensation during urination Discharge of pus from the penis or vagina Infection of urethra of Fallopian tubes causing infertility Newborn may be blind Can be treated with anti-biotics

8.3.2. Syphilis Caused by spiral bacteria Transmitted through Sexual intercourse Mother to foetus during pregnancy Symptoms Painless sores on penis,vagina,cervix,mouth Non-itchy skin rash Deformed joints Paralysis Foetus infected by mother may be deaf, or have abnormal teeth and bone Can be treated with antibiotics at early stages

8.3.3. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Caused by Humans Immunodeficiency Virus Transmitted through Sexual intercourse Sharing of injection needles with infected people Blood transfusion Infected mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth Symptoms/effects HIV attacks white blood cells, therefore the immune system of the person is reduced Other infections and cancers will affect the person Currently no cure

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