attempts at teaching chimps and gorillas human languages, sign language (subject to interpretation), plastic tokens and touch screens, Kanzi responding to spoken commands, but... maybe just "OBJECT LOCATION", no evidence of grammar
attempts at understanding the complexity of chimp, gorilla, dolphine, whale, etc. communications, data only now becoming available, apply machine learning, statistical modeling for analyzing and decoding it
use existing tool
create a tool (e.g., bending a hook)
use one tool to obtain another
crows are capable of doing this
bonobos are capable of tool making as well
video game playing
potato washing, separating rice and dirt by floating the rice on water
teaching these skills to the next generation
observed in Japanese snow monkeys
chimps - fighting, alliances, friends, displays, family relations, grooming, etc.
integral part of their society
counting objects independent of structure, identity, or arrangement
"Where were you yesterday just before lunch?"
Can we test episodic memory only with language?
Animals remember specific actions and events, e.g., where food items are present / stored.
It is unclear whether this works using the same neural structures as humans or whether it is a different mechanism.
learning by observation
cooperation and fairness
non-procreative sex, prostitution
underlying hypothesis: "these behaviors are so complex that there is no other explanation than complex cognitive processes"
for some of these, we may be mistaken; there may be simple mechanisms that result in seemingly complex behaviors, "face on mars", what's actually there, we have a tendency to interpret things in human terms, "anthropomorphic fallacy"
the "Clever Hans" problem, Clever Hans, Clever Hans (in German, der Kluge Hans) was an Orlov Trotter horse that was claimed to have been able to perform arithmetic and other intellectual tasks. After a formal investigation in 1907, psychologist Oskar Pfungst demonstrated that the horse was not actually performing these mental tasks, but was watching the reaction of his human observers
on the other hand, a lot of seemingly "intelligent" or "complex" behavior in humans may actually be fairly simple
much of the discussion implicitly assumes that intelligence and language are all/nothing phenomena; but if they evolved gradually over millions of years, we would expect to find simple forms of "intelligence" in many mammals, and it becomes a question of where we draw the line
an inability to learn human language is not the same as ain inability to learn language; animals might be capable of other forms of symbolic communication, or maybe language could be non-symbolic
require rare fats in the diet
require large amounts of energy to maintain
scarcity of food
impressing your mate